Main Article Content

Abstract

Background


Pain is a very unpleasant sensory and emotional experience due to tissue damage. There are many effective analgesics available, which are widely used to reduce pain, but they are associated with many side effects which limit their clinical use. Therefore, in this study we aim to demonstrate the analgesic activity of Ferula Asafoetida at three different doses in animal model.


Materials and Methods


The animals were divided into their respective groups of 6 mice each. Central Analgesic activity of Ferula Asafoetida aqueous extract at three different dose (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg) was assessed by hot plate method in mice. Difference in mean change in reaction time was calculated for each group and was compared with tramadol. Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed by acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Mean number of wriths was calculated and it was compared with diclofenac. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s t-test and p <0.05 was considered significant.


Results


In the hot plate method, central analgesic activity of Ferula Asafoetida at a dose of 20mg/kg was statistically comparable to Tramadol at different time points (20min, 60 min, 90 min). Though there was a significant increase in reaction time of Ferula asafetida group at a dose of 10mg/kg when compared to control but was not statistically comparable to tramadol. In acetic acid induced writhing method, peripheral analgesic activity of Ferula asafetida at a dose of 20mg/kg was significantly comparable to diclofenac.


Conclusion


In this study it was concluded that Ferula Asafoetida has significant central as well as peripheral analgesic activity as compared to standard treatments i.e; Tramadol and Diclofenac respectively.

Keywords

Ferula Asafoetida Hot Plate Acetic acid induced writhing Cyclo-oxygenase

Article Details

How to Cite
Hasan.R, Abidi.A, Qadeer.F, Rizvi.D, Thadani.A, & Arora.S. (2021). Demonstration of analgesic activity of ferula asafoetidain an animal model. International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 7(4), 381-389. Retrieved from https://ijrpp.com/ijrpp/article/view/311

References

  1. [1]. Merskey H, Bugduk N. Classification of Chronic Pain. Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2, 1994.
  2. [2]. Clifford. J Woolf .What is this thing called pain?. Journal of Clinical Investigation.120(11), 2010, 3742–4.
  3. [3]. Voghel ,Drug Discovery and Evaluation 2, chapter H
  4. [4]. Jage J. Opioid tolerance and dependence. Do they matter? Eur J Pain.9, 2005, 157–162.
  5. [5]. Bagheri S, Hedesh S, Mirjalili A, Dashti-R M. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Some Possible Mechanisms of Antinociceptive Effect of Ferula assafoetida Oleo Gum Resin. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 21(4), 2016, 271-276.
  6. [6]. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM. Pharmacology. New York: Churchill Livingston; 1998, 25- 33.
  7. [7]. Golmohammadi F. Medical plant of Ferula assafoetida and its cultivating, main characteristics and economical importance in South Khorasan province - east of Iran, Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 3(18), 2013, 2334-46.
  8. [8]. Mahendra P. and Bisht S. Ferula asafoetida: Traditional uses and pharmacological activity, Pharmacogn Rev. 6(12), 2012, 141–46.
  9. [9]. Amalraj A, Gopi S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Asafoetida: A review. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.7(3), 2017, 347-359.
  10. [10]. Sultana A, Asma K, Rahman K and Rahman S Oleo-gum-resin of Ferula asafoetida: A traditional culinary spice with versatile pharmacological activities. Research Journal of Recent Sciences.4, 2015, 16-22
  11. [11]. Bagheri S.M., Dashti-R M.H. and Morshedi A., Antinociceptive effect of Ferula assafoetida oleo-gum- resin in mice, Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 9(3), 2014, 207-12.
  12. [12]. Jha P, Mazumdar B, Bhatt J. Analgesic activity of venlafaxine and its interactions with tramadol, celecoxib and amlodipine in mice. Indian Journal of Pharmacology.38(3), 2006, 181.
  13. [13]. Bagheri SM, Keyhani L, Heydari M, Dashti-R MH. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalusgummifer gum (gum tragacanth) through the adrenergic system: an in vivo study in mice. J Ayurveda Integr Med.6, 2015, 19-23.
  14. [14]. Collier HOJ, Dinneen LC, Johnson CA, Schneider C. The abdominal constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drug in the mouse. Br J PharmacolChemother.36, 1968, 313-320.
  15. [15]. Debasis Mishra et al. An experimental study of analgesic activity of selective COX-2 inhibitor with conventionalNSAIDs. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.4(1), 2011, 78-81
  16. [16]. A.R.Ronaldo, L.V.Mariana, M.T.Sara, B.P.P.Adriana, P.Steve, S.H.Ferreira, Q.C.Fernando; Involvement of resident macrophages and mast cells in the writhing nociceptive response induced by zymosan and acetic acid in mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 387, 2000, 111-118.
  17. [17]. M.Hosoi; Prostaglandin E(2) has antinociceptive effects through EP(1) receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus in rats, Pain, 83, 1999, 221-227.
  18. [18]. Sook-Ha Fan, Noraisah Akbar Ali, DayangFredalinaBasri. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercusinfectoria (Olivier) in Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014, 1-6.
  19. [19]. K.Abo-EL-Sooud, A.Goudah, Manal M.A.Yousef. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ferula assafoetida gum in rodent model. Natural Products An Indian Journal.10(1), 2014, 22-26.
  20. [20]. E.M.Franzotti, C.V.Santos, H.M.Rodrigues, R.H.Mourao, M.R.Andrade, A.R.Antoniolli. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and acute toxicity of SidacadifoliaL,J.Ethnopharmacol. 72, 2002, 273-278.
  21. [21]. Nazari ZE, Iranshahi M. Biologically active sesquiterpenecoumarins from Ferula species. Phytother Res.25, 2010, 315-323.
  22. [22]. Salminen A, Lehtonen M, Suuronen T, et al. Terpenoids: natural inhibitors of NF-kB signaling with anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential. Cell Mol Life Sci.65, 2008, 2979-2999.
  23. [23]. Iranshahi M, Askari M, Sahebkar A, Hadjipavlou-Litina D. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of theprenylatedcoumarinumbelliprenin. Daru.17, 2009, 99-103.
  24. [24]. Appendino G, Maxia L, Bascope M, et al. A meroterpenoidNFkB inhibitor and drimanesesquiterpenoids from asafetida. J Nat Prod. 69, 2006, 1101-1104.