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Overview of systematic reviews of observational epidemiological evidence suggests that passive smoking is significantly associated with an increasing risk of many diseases or health problems, especially meningitis. Active smoking is a recognized risk factor of various infectious diseases. Passive smoking appears to increase the risk of meningococcal disease (MD) in adolescents. Although smoking and smoking-associated diseases are associated with a high risk of infection, most therapies aim to reduce inflammatory parameters, but do not necessarily take into account the presence of persistent colonisers. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted. The effect of cigarette smoke on host–pathogen interaction dynamics in the nervous system, together with current and novel therapies will have significant role in elimination of infectious diseases completely. Both exposure to 'smoke', or 'smokers' (who are highly susceptible to pharyngeal carriage of meningococcal) are postulated mechanisms, but unfortunately very few studies have examined the risk of exposure by considering these two variables separately, and this therefore remains a research priority.


Active smoking Second-hand smokers Bacterial meningitis Persistent colonisers Host-Pathogen interaction Pharyngeal carriage

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Dr. Shaik Kareemulla, M. PavanKumar Reddy, Shaik Mohammed Ishak, G. Jyothsna, & K. Sreeharinadh. (2021). Second hand smoke exposure associated with risk of invasive meningococcal disease: Commentary reviews based on epidemiological evidence. International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 8(3), 358-365.


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