Main Article Content



Self medication of antibiotic leads to Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and is going to become a global epidemic. The purpose of National Action Plan for AMR is to improve awareness and understanding of AMR through educational training and effective communication.


To analyze the knowledge, attitude and perception about AMR and to spread awareness and improve knowledge so as to optimize antimicrobial use.

Materials and Methods

A cross sectional survey was carried out among 2nd year MBBS students in July 2019 with the help of a questionnaire consisting of 30 questions. The results were analyzed with the help of percentage and chi square test was used to see statistical significance.


Out of 112 respondents 70.43%, 57.28%, 68.5% students answered correctly to the questions in knowledge, attitude, and perception respectively. The most commonly self medicated antibiotics were Amoxicillin and Fluoroquinolones (25%) followed by Azithromycin (16%).

 82.1% were aware that antibiotics target bacteria, but 47.3% and 31.2% had a perception that they were effective for fungi and viruses as well, and 40% said it was effective for all.

 81.2% agreed that taking antibiotic only when prescribed will prevent AMR. Only 36.6% students knew that we should give fewer antibiotics to food producing animals, 70.5% felt that newer antibiotics are better than old ones and 71.4% believed that it  necessary to complete the course of antibiotics.


Our study provides an important insight regarding knowledge, attitude and perception of medical undergraduates and the results can be considered while formulating a need based undergraduate curriculum regarding antibiotic usage and AMR. Since these students will be role model for citizens and patients, it is important to sensitize them, so as to bring a behavioral change which impacts human health tremendously.


Antimicrobial Resistance Knowledge Perception Self medication

Article Details

How to Cite
M Agrawal, G Nayak, & R Hishikar. (2021). Curtailing self medication to combat antimicrobial resistance-a KAP study. International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 8(3), 317-325.


  1. [1]. Elise Farley. Title: Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of antibiotic resistance among private sector patients and Prescribers in South Africa. 2017. Accessed from on 2019.
  2. [2]. National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR) April 2017 India
  3. Accessed 15/7/19
  4. [3]. Guidelines for the regulatory assessment of medicinal products for use in self-medication. 2000. Accessed: 18/7/19:
  5. [4]. Global database for Antimicrobial Resistance Country Self-Assessment Accessed: 2019
  6. resistance
  7. [5]. Lee,G.C,Reveles K R, Attridge R T, Lawson K A, Mansi I A, LewisII J S et al.,X.Outpatient antibiotic prescribing in the United States: 2000 to 2010.BMC medicine. 2014, 12-96.
  8. [6]. Goossens H1, Ferech M, Vander Stichele R, Elseviers M. Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study. Lancet. 365(9459), 2005, 579-87.
  9. [7]. Afzal Khan A K, Gausia Banu, and Reshma K K. Antibiotic Resistance and Usage—A Survey on the Knowledge, Attitude, Perceptions and Practices among the Medical Students of a Southern Indian Teaching Hospital J Clin Diagn Res. 7(8), 2013, 1613–1616
  10. [8]. The KAP survey model (Knowledge, Attitude & Practices – ResearchGate Accessed 15:/7/19
  11. [9]. Antibiotic resistance: Multi-country public awareness survey World Health Organization – 2015. Accessed:15/7/19
  12. [10]. Sharma S, Jayakumar D, Palappallil DS,Kesavan KP, Knowledge,attitude and practices of antibiotic usage and resistance among the second year MBBS Students. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 5(3), 2016, 899-903.
  13. [11]. Ying Huang, Jiauri Gu, Mingyu Zhang, Zheng Ren, Weidong Yang, yang Chen- Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics :a questionnaire study among 2500 Chinese students.BMC Medical Education 13, 2013, 163
  14. [12]. Samina Farhat, Mohammad Younis Bhat, Zahid Mohd.Rather-A questionnaire based survey on antibiotic usage and resistance among second professional medical students in a tertiary care centre: Int. J. of Res. In Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. 4(3), 2015, 313-319.
  15. [13]. Eric S. Donkar ,Patience B.Tetteth, Patrick Nartey Issac O.Agyeman-Self-Medication Practices with Antibiotics among Tertiary Level Students in Acra, Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. health 9, 2012, 3519-3529
  16. [14]. Gabi Topor, Ionela-Alina Grosu, Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc,Aurel Lulu Start and Catalina Lupusoru-Awareness about antibiotic resistance in a self-medication user group from Eastern Romania:a pilot study. PeerJ, 5, 2017, e3803
  17. [15]. Giacomo Scaioli, Maria R.Gualano, Renata Gili, Simona Masucci, Fabrizio Bert, Roberta Siliquini-Antibiotic Use: A cross-sectional survey assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices amongst students of a school of medicine in Italy: PLOS ONE, 1, 2015, 0122476
  18. [16]. US Food and Drug Administration. Animal and Veterinary. Guidance and Regulations. Guidance for Industry. Antimicrobial Resistance Guidances. Accessed: 12/7/19
  19. [17]. Antimicrobial resistance - World Health Organization › News › Fact sheets › Detail
  20. [18]. Egle Pavyde, Vincentas Veikutis, Asta Maciuliene, Vytautas Maciulis, Kestulis Petrikonis Edgaras Stankevicius-Public Knowledge ,Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and self-medication in Lithuania: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 12, 2015, 7002-7016.
  21. [19]. Peter M Hawkey-The origins and molecular basis of antibiotic resistance: BMJ. 317(7159), 1998, 657–660. Accessed:20/7/19:
  22. [20]. Franklin D.Lowy Antimicrobial resistance:the example of Staphylococcus.J. Clin. Invest.111, 2003, 1265-1273.
  23. [21]. Flavia Rossi, Raquel Girardello, Ana Paula Cury, Thais Sabato Romano Di Gioia, Joao Nobrega de Almeida Jr, Alberto Jose da Silva Duarte: Emergence of Colistin Resistance in the largest university hospital complex of Sao Paulo,Brazil, over five years. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 21(1), 2017, 98-101.Accessed from
  24. [22]. Tsiodras S, Gold HS, Sakoulas G, Eliopoulos GM, Wennersten C, Venkataraman L-Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet. 21, 2001, 358(9277), 207-8 PMID: 11476839.Accessed from on on 7/07/19
  25. [23]. Gupta V, Garg S, Jain R, Garg S, Chander J: Linezolid resistant Staphlococcus haemolyticus: first case report from India. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 5(10), 2012, 837-8.
  26. Accessed: 5/7/19
  27. [24]. Simit Kumar, Maitreyi Bandyoapdhyay, Mitali Chatterjee, Prabir Mukhopadhyay, Sumon Poddar, and Parthajit Banerjee-The first linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium in India: High level resistance in a patient with no previous antibiotic exposure. Avicenna J Med. 4(1), 2014, 13–16. Accessed from on 15/07/19
  28. [25]. By Helen S Lee, Jennifer Le Urinary Tract Infections
  29. Accessed from > psap on 23/7/19
  30. [26]. Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. OUP Oxford. 56, 2009. ISBN 9780191039621. Archived from the original on 2015-11-24.
  31. [27]. WHO, Antimicrobial resistance. Bulletin of the World Health Organization,61(3), 2014, 383- 94
  32. [28]. Bradley J.Langford and Andrew M. Morris,-Is it time to stop counseling in patients to “finish the course of antibiotics”? Can Pharm J (Ott). 150(6), 2017, 349–350.