Main Article Content

Abstract

Background


Hair dye products are being extensively used worldwide to enhance an individual outlook. More than two thirds of hair dyes currently contain PPD (paraphenelenediamine) which is a potent allergen and also a carcinogen as demonstrated in experimental studies. With the paucity of existing scientific evidence among the Indian population on hair dye use and in the current scenario safety of hair-coloring agents being a matter of active debate impelled us to take up the present study.


Objectives


To assess the prevailing practices, perception and knowledge of hair dye use and also to know the profile of adverse drug reactions to hair dye use.


Materials and methods


A cross sectional study was conducted between October 2015- December 2016. A pre validated questionnaire containing 30 questions was administered to doctors and nurses working at Victoria, Vani Vilas, Bowring and Minto hospital attached to Bangalore medical college and research institute. The data tabulated was analyzed using descriptive statistics.


Results


A total of 130 doctors and 196 nurses participated in the study with an overall response rate of 79.5%. The age at which the participants started using hair dyes was 21-30 years among doctors and < 20 years among nurses with a frequency of  use being ≥5 times /year in both the groups. 63% of doctors and 80.6% of nurses used the hair dye to cover the gray hairs with the natural hair color being the most preferred option. Most of the participants i.e 64.6% of doctors and 73.97% of nurses used synthetic hair color with synthetic semi-permanent being the most commonly used hair dye although they opined that natural hair dyes are safe. An alarming issue observed in the study was that 69.2% of nurses and 52.30% of doctors never performed an allergy test prior to its use taking into consideration that PPD is a very potent allergen. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) was reported by 15.9% participants with itching (5.47%), rash (2.43%) and watering from eyes and nose (1.835) being the commonest ADR. 26.9% of the reactions were seen immediately and 19.2% sought medical treatment of whom 1.9% required hospitalization with duration of hospital stay being 1-2 days. There was uncertainty with regards to its safety, risk of cancer and safety during pregnancy and lactation in the medical fraternity.


Conclusion


Hair dye use was started at an early age and majority used synthetic hair dyes although they perceived that natural ones are safe. Adverse drug reactions noted were minor and provided the potential of PPD to cause life threatening reactions it is essential to increase the awareness regarding its adverse effect profile among the public and health care professionals. Further large scale studies need to be conducted to create a database regarding the hypersensitivity reactions and associated cancer risk which will help governing bodies in cosmetic industry to take sappropriate measures in India.

Keywords

Hair dye PPD (paraphenylenediamine) Semi-permanent hair dyes Permanent hair dyes

Article Details

How to Cite
Jayanthi C R, Divyashree R N, Vijayalakshmi, Dharani S, & Soumya R. (2021). A cross sectional study of hair dye use among doctors and nurses working at a tertiary care centre. International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 7(1), 85-96. Retrieved from https://ijrpp.com/ijrpp/article/view/238

References

  1. [1]. Trueb RM. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair. Clin Interv Aging. 1(2), 2006, 121-9.
  2. [2]. Tobin DJ. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects. Int J Cosmet Sci. 30(4), 2008, 233-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2008.00456.x.
  3. [3]. Pandhi D, Khanna D. Premature graying of hair. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 79, 2013, 641-53
  4. [4]. Al Ghamdi KM, Moussa NA. Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 31(6), 2011, 613-619. doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87099.
  5. [5]. Kim KH, Kabir E, Jahan SA. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health. Environ Int. 2016; 89-90:222-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.01.018.
  6. [6]. Nohynek GJ, Fautz R, Benech-Kieffer F, Toutain H. Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes. Food Chem Toxicol. 42(4), 2004, 517-43.
  7. [7]. Saitta P, Cook CE, Messina JL, Brancaccio R, Wu BC, Grekin SK, Holland J. Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence Relating Personal Hair Dye Use to the Risk of Malignancy. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology. 6(1), 2013, 39-46.
  8. [8]. Da França SA, Dario MF, Esteves EB, Baby AR, Velasco MVR. Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action. Cosmetics. 2, 2015, 110-126. doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020110.
  9. [9]. Patel D, Narayana S, Krishnaswamy B. Trends in Use of Hair Dye: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Trichology. 5(3), 2013, 140-143. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.125610.
  10. [10]. Kim JE, Jung HD, Kang H. A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair. Annals of Dermatology. 24(3), 2012, 274-279. doi:10.5021/ad.2012.24.3.274.
  11. [11]. Ammenheuser MM, Warren ME. Detection of mutagens in the urine of rats following topical application of hair dyes. Mutat Res. 66(3), 1979, 241–245.
  12. [12]. Zaid AN, Ramahi R, Ghoush AA, Jaradat N, Musmar M. Frequency and attitudes of using hair dyes among palestinian women. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5, 2013, 485-488.
  13. [13]. McFadden JP, White IR, Frosch PJ, Sosted H, Johansen JD, Menne T. Allergy to hair dye. British Medical Journal 334(7587), 2007, 220. doi:10.1136/bmj.39042.643206.BE.
  14. [14]. Heikkinen S, Pitkaniemi J, Sarkeala T, Malila N, Koskenvuo M. Does hair dye increase the risk of breast cancer? A population based case control study of Finnish women. PLoS ONE. 10(8), 2015, e0135190.doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0135190.
  15. [15]. Mukkanna KS, Stone NM, Ingram JR. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management. Journal of Asthma and Allergy. 10, 2017, 9-15. doi:10.2147/JAA.S90265.
  16. [16]. Schafer T, Bohler E, Ruhdorfer S, Weigl L, Wessner D, Filipiak B, et al. Epidemiology of contact allergy in adults. Allergy 56, 2001, 1192 6.
  17. [17]. Averbukh A, Modai D. Leonov Y. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure induced by paraphenylenediamine. Hum Toxicol 8, 1989, 345-8.
  18. [18]. Barna iS. Frable MA. Life threatening angioedema. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 990(103), 795-8.