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This comprehensive review explores the intricate landscape of multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex autoimmune disease affecting millions worldwide. Beginning with an analysis of its etiology, including genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune dysregulation, the article delves into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MS, highlighting inflammation, neurodegeneration, and gliosis as central features. Clinical presentations and diagnostic considerations are discussed, emphasizing the diverse neurological symptoms and objective findings encountered in MS patients. The review further examines current management strategies, focusing on disease-modifying drugs and emerging therapies such as botanical extracts, probiotics, and novel immunomodulatory agents. Insights from preclinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of natural compounds like Hypericum perforatum, Panax ginseng, Nigella sativa, and ginger are presented alongside discussions on bee venom and blueberries as potential adjunctive treatments. Finally, the article explores ongoing clinical trials evaluating innovative therapeutic approaches targeting immune dysregulation in MS. Through a multidimensional lens, this review offers valuable insights into the complexities of MS pathogenesis and the evolving landscape of therapeutic interventions


Multiple sclerosis Autoimmune disease gliosis Nigella sativa Hypericum perforatum Panax ginseng

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How to Cite
Zeenath P, Mumthas Beegum PC, Mohammed Sahad P, E. Tamil Jothi, G Babu, & Anson S Maroky. (2024). Advancements in Multiple Sclerosis Research: From Pathogenesis to Novel Therapeutic Strategies. International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 13(2), 54-62. Retrieved from


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