Special Articles

  1. Role of β-sitosterol enriched fraction from the methanolic extract of leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. on inflammatory cytokines Download Article

    S.Sathya and A.Puratchikody

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    The potent pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β & TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were investigated for its effect on β-sitosterol enriched fraction from the methanolic extract of leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. The n-butanol part of the methanolic extract was eluted using mixtures of solvents of increasing polarity. From the combined eluted fractions, three fractions such as F1, F2 and F3 were collected by column chromatography using n-hexane: Chloroform (1:1) as a solvent and the compounds present in the fractions were identified by GC-MS. Among the collected fractions, the F1 was found to be the β-sitosterol enriched fraction (β-SEF). The maximum non-lethal dose of β-SEF was found to be 1000 mg/kg body weight using OECD 423 guidelines. The effect of β-SEF (100 mg/kg), almost 10 times less than the standard drug Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), and it was determined against inflammation by carrageenan induced hind paw edema method. β-SEF produced a dose dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and TNF-α and increase         anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level in the inflamed paw. Treatment with Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg) and β-SEF (30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased the NF-kB expression in inflamed rats which concludes the reduction of inflammation was probably by decreasing the expression of NF-kB. 

  2. Curative Effect of Kaempferol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Methanolic Extract of Indigofera aspalathoides Vahl ex DC against Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Albino rats. Download Article

    S.Swarnalatha, S.Gayathri, S. Lavanya, G.Kavithalya, A. Puratchikody

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    To investigate the in vitro anti-arthritic potential of isolated compound Kaempferol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (K-5-β-D-g) from methanolic extract of aerial parts of Indigofera aspalathoides Vahl ex DC. (Papilionaceae) using Wistarrats. Anti-arthritic activity of K-5-β-D-g was evaluated using Freund’s complete adjuvant model. The parameters such as foot pad thickness, body weight measurement, rheumatoid factor, spleen index assessment, hematological estimation and histopathology of synovial joints were examined. Methotrexate was used as standard (5mg/kg b.w.p.o). Administration of K-5-β-D-g at the doses of 10, 20, 50, 100 mg/kg b. w. p. o exhibited statistically significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of the paw edema, increase in body weight, decrease in arthritic, rheumatoid and spleen index factors. The results of haematological parameters showed that the treatment of K-5-β-D-g at varied doses significantly increased (P < 0.001) the Heamoglobin (Hb) level, Red Blood Cells (RBCs) count, decreased White Blood Cells (WBCs) count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). All these treatment groups were compared with arthritis treated groups. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that K-5-β-D-g had comparable anti-arthritic activity with methotrexate. The results obtained suggestedthatK-5-β-D-g from the methanol extract of aerial parts of I. aspalathoidesVahl ex DC. Holds significant anti-arthritic activity by inhibiting various inflammatory mediators and there by act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effects.

  3. The Effect of Isolated Probiotic Bacteria on the Growth Performance of Fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio. Download Article

    J.Karthegaa, K. Parvathi, S. Jayaprakash

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    Aim

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest animal protein producing sectors throughout the world. Probiotics plays an important role in growth performance. The aim of the present study was to find out the effect of isolated probiotic bacteria on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio.

    Methods

    Potential strains such as Bacillus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified based on Bergey’s manual of Systematic Bacteriology.

    Results

    Probiotics are very useful microorganisms stimulating growth performance of the host. The weight of the fish was measured at the end of 30, 60 and 90 days of experimental period. From the present study it was observed that the weight gain was more in pond C fish than the pond A and B.

    Conclusion

    Present study results revealed that fish fed with isolated intestinal microbes along with the formulated feed showed higher growth performance. The study is extremely promising, that emphasis the important role of probiotic strains and its effects in fish culture.  

  4. Formulation and characterization of aloe emulgel using rice hulls as an excipient Download Article

    A. Sumathi, TNK. Suriyaprakash

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    The combustion of rice hulls yields rice husk ash (RHA) which is a potential source of amorphous reactive silica (83–90%). This has got a variety of applications in various fields of pharmaceuticals, material science and technology. Silicon strengthens the hair and renders it less brittle for splitting. At optimum silicon uptake the skin and hair is well hydrated and maintain a lusture that is attractive and young looking. The literature review reveals the traditional use of Aloe barbadensismiller (Ab) for hair growth and for improvement in hair growth following alopecia. Thus an attempt was made to develop an emulgel for hair care with the combined effect of silica in RHA and Ab. Preformulation studies revealed that the drug component, silica, polymers and other excipients were compatible with each other. Different formulations containing 1% silica using emulsifying agents (Tween 20/Span 20) and gelling agents (Carbopol/HPMC) in various ratios were prepared and characterized by analyzing their physicochemical and rheological parameters viz. appearance, extrudability, pH, spreadability, viscosity, globule size and distribution. The mean globule size and poly dispersity index were found to be 2417 nm and 0.695 respectively. The skin irritation test for the optimized formulation was performed on healthy albino rats had shown no erythema, edema or reddening of skin. The stability studies were carried out as per ICH guidelines which indicated no significant change in their rheological parameters, drug content and globule size. Thus, it was concluded that silicon dioxide obtained from rice husk ash can be used as an excipient in formulating hair care products which also supports technological and economical points of view. 

  5. Magic of Indian Spice Cinnamon: an in silico study Download Article

    N.Thajuddin, N.Sharmiladevi M.Thenmozhi

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    Objective

    Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark as several trees from the genus cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savory foods. It has a long history of use in traditional medicine, but no evidence indicates that it is useful to treat any medical condition. The present study deals with the inhibition of selected target protein which is Protein Tryrosine Phosphatase. It helps to control insulin regulation in Type-2 diabetes using computational docking study.

    Materials and Methods 

    The present study deals with the computational docking study performed for   Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamic acid and cinnamate against selected target protein (Protein Tyrosine phosphatase). Autodock software was used to study the binding affinity and protein-ligand stability. Based on its score, binding affinities were studied and through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions protein-ligand stability were also studied since protein-ligand interactions plays significant role in structure based drug design.

    Results

    Eugenol, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamic acid, and Cinnamate shown significant binding affinity towards target protein tyrosine phophatase

    Conclusion

    According to this computational docking study, the protein-ligand properties were used to ensure the results for further In-vivo and In-vitro studies to promote these molecules as a conventional therapeutic molecule. 

  6. Phytochemical Investigation and Anticancer Activity of Leaf Extract of Raphanus sativus var.sativus Download Article

    D.Delphy Sherlie Paul, P.Harini, S.Assvitha, A.Kalairasi, S.Ganesh, A.Umamaheswari

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    In the present study, we report the occurrence of two derivatives of isothiocyanate as Epidermal Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor for the treatment of NSCLC. The dried leaves of Raphanus sativus var. sativus were extracted using ethanol as solvent to identify its active constituents. The active constituents were identified using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The functional group was identified using FT-IR. The extract showed the presence of two isothiocyanate derivatives namely, 3-Butenyl isothiocyanate and 4-(Methylthio) butanenitrile and were confirmed using GC-MS analysis. Finally, ethanolic extract was also evaluated for its anti-cancer activity in NSCLC cell lines with H3255 and found to be effective when compared to the standard. Hence it is concluded that these two derivatives of isothiocyanate in Raphanus sativus var. sativus could be developed as a lead for the treatment of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer.

  7. Applications of computer in Health Profession: From Drug Discovery to Market Download Article

    S. Lakshmana Prabu, R. Thirumurugan, P.Mahesh Vijay, A. Shanmugarathinam

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    Nowadays computer is being used by every human being in various fields for their day to day activities. Among the various fields medical profession and its related activities are not exemption to utilize the computers. Computer application in various stages from drug discovery to market includes drug discovery → chemoinformatics for chemical structure databases, computer algorithms for molecule synthesis, predicting protein ligand free energy for drug discovery, strategies for early-stage drug discovery, bioinformatics tools for drug discovery, simulation for decision making; preclinical and clinical management → data analysis and data management in preclinical development, statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research and development, clinical data collection and management, predicting drug metabolism, deposition, adverse effects, toxicology, risk assessment; pharmaceutical industries and R&D center → manufacturing, drug analysis and data management about drug product distribution; hospital and clinical pharmacy → medical information and drug information system; medical profession → diagnostic testing and dispensing the drug product through pharmacy shop. Computer can handle enormous data and the data can be retrieve or reviewed whenever it requires, which reduce the time, expenditure and manpower. Discovering a new drug is based on the trial and error, whereas the new technologies and development of various software‟s in discovery and development reduce cost and time required to bring a new drug to market with definite quality and to provide better therapy for the particular disease. This article provides an overview of various softwares and its applications in the field of medical profession.

  8. In silico analysis of Coriandrum Sativum against sPLA2 as a therapeutic target protein for Antiasthmatic activity Download Article

    S. Lakshmana Prabu, A. Umamaheswari, V. Tamilselvan, V. Brithvi

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    Asthma is deadly disease that inflames the bronchial tubes with increased production of sticky secretions inside the tubes and narrows the airways. Approximately, 300 million people are suffered from asthma and its prevalence increases globally by 50% every decade. Coriandrum sativum is an easily available plant species which has a number of medicinal values and is cost effective. In this study, fresh leaves have been extracted with various solvent systems and phytochemical screening was carried out. The results revealed that the methanolic extract contains tannins, saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. These phytochemical constituents were subjected to docking with Secretory Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) protein using Accelrys Discovery Studio 2.5 in order to determine the binding affinity for antiasthmatic activity. All the phytoconstituents were docked using C-DOCKER protocol and found to have highest (-) CDOCKER energy ensuring good binding modes. The results reveal that the phytoconstituents such as quercetin and kaempferol showed highest binding energy for antiasthmatic activity. Pharmacophore and toxicity studies were also performed for the constituents. The phytoconstituents such as quercetin and kaempferol were found best pharmacophoric group like standard drugs and devoid of toxicity. Based on these observations, it is concluded that phytoconstituent kaempferol is accounts for the anti-asthmatic property of Coriandrum sativum.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of diclofenac sodium using hydrophilic natural gum as release modifying agent Download Article

    S.Lakshmana Prabu, P.Mohananarayanan, A.Shanmugarathinam, V.Kohila, M.Kavichezhiyan

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    The objective of our present study was an attempt to develop a sustained release diclofenac sodium tablets by utilizing natural gum (polysaccharides) as release modifier to release the drug in the colon region to improve the therapeutic effectiveness and patient compliance. Six different formulations of sustained release matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium were prepared by either alone or in a combination of guar gum and xanthan gum to determine the release retarding efficiency of these polymers. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using PVP K30 as binding agent. The flow properties of the blended powder and the formulated matrix tablets were evaluated for its physicochemical properties such as thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation and drug content. The in vitro drug release was analyzed using the paddle method according to USP XXIII, all the studies were done in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and the drug release was determined by fitting the release data to kinetic models. The physicochemical properties of the formulated tablets were within the limits. The release study result reveals that guar gum alone was unable to control drug release, whereas xanthan gum retarded release of the drug. The in vitro release of the optimized formulation was compared with the market formulation and the difference factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2) were found to be 6.54 and 69.05 respectively. Stability studies of the optimized formulation were carried out as per ICH guidelines and the stability study results confirmed that the prepared formulation was stable in the stress condition.

  10. Insilico and Invitro Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory activity on Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Leaves Extract Download Article

    P.Valentina, A. Maheswaran, M.Monisha, R.Mythili, V.Nabi Shiba, A.Nallasivam

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    The interest in medicinal and aromatic plants has been shown all over the world because of their safe and effective active principles. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis of family Oleaceae is widely known in India and neighboring countries and used traditionally for the treatment of arthritis in several part of India. The phytoconstituents present in this plant are reported for anti-inflammatory activity which is a main constituent in alcoholic extract. The enzyme xanthine oxidase involve in production increasing the uric acid level in blood, which is the main cause for gout. The present work is to evaluate the invitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity in the alcoholic extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves and insilico studies with the phytoconstituents of this plant. The molecular docking score of the ligands lupeol, astragalin, nicotiflorin and freidline was found to be -10.41 kcal/mol, -8.84 kcal/mol, -9.161 kcal/mol and -9.92 kcal/mol respectively. Astragaline have good docking score and bond length of 2.8 and 3.3 signifies a close interaction and effective binding interaction with key amino acids threonine 262 and asparagines 351. The hydroalcoholic extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves were evaluated for in vitro Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and the IC50 value was 39.5μg/ml.

  11. Antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Urechites lutea leaves. Download Article

    Sakthivel Balasubramaniyan, Navabshan Irfan1, Ayarivan Puratchikody, Mathur Gopalakrishnan Sethuraman

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    Objective
    To assess the antioxidant, in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and estimate the total flavonoid contents in ethanolic extract of Urechities lutea leaves.
    Methods
    In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radical and Cyclic voltammetry method. Human Red Blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity. Estimation of total flavonoid content by Aluminum chloride colorimetric method
    Results
    The 80% ethanolic extract of Urechities lutea leaves exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging activity of DPPH radical and the IC50 value Urechities lutea leaves, standard ascorbic acid were found to be 53 ± 2 μg/mL and 47 ± 3 μg/ mL respectively. The anti- inflammatory activity increased with increase of concentration up to a concentration of 31μg/ mL and then it began to off at a concentration of 125 μg/ mL. 100 g dried leaves of U. lutea contain 0.216 g of flavonoids.
    Conclusion
    From this result, it is concluded that the flavonoid contents of ethanolic extract of Urechities lutea leaves shown the antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities.

  12. Isolation, characterization and in-vitro cytotoxic study of vitexin from Vitex pinnata Linn. leaves Download Article

    S. Thenmozhi and U. Subasini

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    Vitex pinnata Linn. (Syn: Vitex pubescens Vahl.) is a moderate size tree of tropical Asia belonging to the family Verbenaceae. Leaves are opposite, compound, 3-5 foliolate, leaflets and petioles pubescent below; lateral leaflet sessile or nearly so, elliptic, 10-20 cm long. In traditional medicine, the plant is used to expel intestinal worms, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing, anti-oxidant, antibacterial and stomach ache. HPTLC results revealed the presents of apigenin flavonoid glucoside i.e., vitexin from hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Vitex pinnata Linn. The present study deals with isolation and characterization of vitexin from hydroalcoholic extract of Vitex pinnata Linn. leaves by column chromatographic method. The characterization of isolated compound was carried out by IR, 1HNMR and 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The isolated compound was in light yellow color amorphous powder, m.p 203.5-204.5°C; the mass spectrum of the compound showed molecular ion peak at m/z 432.08 that corresponds to molecular weight to be 432.3775g/mol (C21H20O10). IR spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl group as broad peak at 3476.86 cm-1. 1H NMR spectrum showed the presence of 20 protons. 13C NMR spectrum accounted about 21 carbons. The peak at 157.35 indicated the presence of =C-O-C carbon atom. The isolated vitexin was tested for anticancer activity against MCF-7 and normal L6 cell lines by MTT assay. It was observed that vitexin showed significant cytotoxic activity against the MCF-7 cell line. Further, the study needs for possible mechanism of action and their molecular studies.

  13. Synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from the leaves of millettia pinnata for detection of allura red in food samples Download Article

    Parveen M, Vijhayalakshmi R, Divya P, Tamil Elakkiya V and Ravishankar K

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    Fluorescence carbon dots have attracted growing interest in recent years due to their great potential in biological labeling, bio imaging. Compared to luminescent semiconductor quantum dots, which have known toxicity and are potentially environmentally hazardous, carbon based fluorescence nanomaterials are environmentally and biologically compatible. The water soluble and fluorescent C- dots were prepared from leaves of Millettia pinnata through low temperature carbonization process. It was characterized with the help of analytical techniques such as DLS, UV-Visible and FT-IR & Fluorescence instruments. The synthesized C- dots were used to detect the concentration of Allura red in food samples. These results suggest that the C-dots has good detection property.

  14. Subacute Nasal Toxicity of Ondansetron Nanoparticles in Wistar Rats Download Article

    J.Joysa Ruby, V.P.Pandey

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    In the present study, the potential toxicity of ondansetron hydrochloride nanoparticles in Wistar rats was studied for the preclinical safety use. The study design involves 3 groups of 6 animals in each group. The formulated ondansetron nanoparticles were administered to Wistar rats through nasal route at 1.08 mg/kg as low dose and 2.16 mg/kg as high dose based on the body weight for 28 consecutive days. The in vivo safety evaluation for nanosuspension after intranasal administration has been performed to identify any toxicological changes occurred in the gross pathology, body weight, animal behavior, hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in the animals. There was no significant differences were observed in body weights, hematological, biochemical parameters of treated group as compared to control. Histopathological studies were carried out to record the effect of chitosan nanoparticles on the vital organs. The histopathological examination of brain did not show any effects and in heart the myocardium was normal and no pigment deposits were seen in the tubules. The liver and lung were found to be normal and no inflammation was observed. Neither removal of cilia nor cell necrosis was observed in nasal mucosa after treating with ondansetron nanoparticles dispersion. Therefore ondansetron loaded chitosan nanoparticles are nontoxic and have potential for safe use as nasal drug delivery system.

  15. Phyto synthesis of ferric oxide nano particles amended with agro wastes to treat calcareous soil: a low cost iron supplement to treat chlorosis Download Article

    Kavya Dharshini.R, Abdul Azeez.N, Sudarshana Deepa.V

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    Lime content in soil averts the intake of adequate iron by plant roots from the soil. This causes chlorosis in plants which is a stern problem in western parts of Tamil Nadu, India, where agriculture is the prime occupation and also supplies agro products to various parts of the world. In current practice, chlorosis is treated by feeding Fe-EDTA complex along with the fertilizers. Though this method is successful in treating chlorosis, persistent use of the chelating agent EDTA causes various health hazards like asthma, heart rhythm problems, diabetes, hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia and there are reports on genetic aberrations. In this work, a biocompatible low cost iron supplement has been developed that is devoid of the toxic EDTA. Ferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are synthesized and amended with iron rich agro wastes that act as both reducing agents and surfactants. Nanoparticles thus formed are confirmed to be ferric oxide using Ultra Violet Spectroscopy (UV Spec), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Cytotoxic study was performed using human embryonic kidney cells to discern the toxicity level of the particles. Glycine max (soy bean) is one of the majorly cultivated commercial plants in tropical countries, which is also prone to chlorosis infection. Lime content in the soil samples collected from the region where Glycine max exhibited chlorosis was tested to be present. As prepared agro waste amended ferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (AFNP) of various concentrations were added to crop cultivated area as iron supplement. Untreated crops were taken as control. Chlorophyll content of the plant was checked and the optimal concentration on AFNP was studied.

  16. Formulation and characterization of microemulsion containing BCS class II drug felodipine Download Article

    Gayathri N, Shanmugarathinam A, Radhika M, Lakshmanaprabu S

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    Microemulsions offers several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self-emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as super solvent of the drugs which are poorly or insoluble in water. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microemulsion of felodipine for the treatment of hypertensive. Formulation has done by taking felodipine drug in the oil phase by using oleic acid as oil, methanol as a co-solvent for drug. Tween 60 and PEG 400 as the surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Microemulsion was prepared by water titration method. Characterization of the felodipine microemulsion was carried out through pH, particle size distribution, zeta potential and in vitro release study. Thus stable microemulsion was formed for felodipine drug for the treatment of hypertensive.

  17. Effect of potent ethyl acetate extract of Amaranthus hybridus instreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Download Article

    Balasubramanian T, Balan P, Suriyaprakash TNK

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    The present study was aimed to evaluate ethyl acetate extract of Amaranthus hybridus leaves for antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute models.In this research, various partitioned extracts of crude ethanol extract from Amaranthus hybridus were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200 mg/kg). The STZ induced diabetic rats were also treated orally with ethyl acetate extract of Amaranthus hybridusfor 14 days once daily at the dose of 200 mg/kg. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose and hepatic antioxidant levels were monitored. Effects of the extract on the pancreatic and hepatic histopathological profile in diabetic rats were also evaluated. The acute study investigation showed that the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the diabetic rats. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction for 14 days significantly (P< 0.001) reduced the fasting blood glucose and hepatic TBARS level and significantly (P< 0.001) increased the liver superoxide dismutase and catalyses activities as well as reduced glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The histopathological study of liver and pancreas in drug treated rats shows significant protective effect against STZ oxidative stress. Our study concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction of Amaranthus hybridus possesses significant anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects. Hence, ethyl acetate fraction could be considered as a potent phytochemical source for development as a safe and effective new antidiabetic drug.

  18. Formulation and Invitro Characterization of Coconut Oil Nano Emulsion for Efficacious Hair Cosmetics Download Article

    R.Vijaya, M.R.Arunkumar, G. Elamathi, T.Senthilkumar, A.Bhuvaneshwari

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    The study describes the formulation of coconut oil containing nano emulsion (NE) to improve its efficacy for cosmetic (hair) preparation. A w/o type NE was prepared using tween 20 and span 20 as surfactants by high energy emulsification technique. The formulation was optimized for surfactant ratio, surfactant concentration, ratio of oil and water. The optimized formula has been characterized for its surface tension, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, pH, saponification value, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), SEM analysis, antimicrobial properties and physical stability studies. Further the size of NE was controlled by adjusting the homogenisation parameters such as speed, time and number of sonication cycles. Results revealed that a blend of tween 20 and span 20 at a ratio of 3:2(10%v/v) gave most stable emulsion for the oil used. A homogenisation speed of 10,000 rpm for 2 min with 8 sonication cycles was found to produce a stable nano sized emulsion (NE3). A physically stable emulsion of less than 500nm with zeta potential of -26.5 mV was obtained and the physical parameters were found to be suitable for cosmetic applications. SEM analysis showed the formulation of nano sized globules. FTIR revealed the compatibility of NE. The antimicrobial activity was much more effective when compared with coconut oil alone. It can be concluded that the prepared coconut oil nano emulsion can be used to enhance the efficacy of hair cosmetic preparations.

  19. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS Download Article

    P.R.Radhika, P.Loganathan, R Sampath Kumar

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    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology are considered to be the key technologies for the current century. In recent years, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has gained much interest from chemist and researchers in this concern. The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticle is considered as a green technology, because it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticle is a growing research area because of their potential applications in Nano medicines. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) is a convenient, cheap and environmentally safe approach compared to chemical synthesis. The main objective is to develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus. The characterization of green synthesised silver nanoparticle is done by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV-Visible spectra gave surface plasmon resonance for synthesised silver nanoparticles at 475nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 140-190nm which were mostly spherical in shape. It can be concluded that the leaves of Elaeocarpus ganitrus can be a good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The silver Nanoparticles provides information to the biomedical and nanotechnology based industries, for the development and outcome of value added products by utilizing the global wealth resources, eliminating the toxic reagents which are hazardous to the health.

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL MICROEMULSION Download Article

    Bhuvaneswari N.L, Krithiga S, Hema.R, SruthiS, Lakshmanaprabu S, Shanmugarathinam A

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    Microemulsions are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a co-surfactant. It contains two immiscible phases (water and oil) present with a surfactant. In the present research work, candesartan cilexetil, an anti-hypertensive drug is formulated as oral micro emulsion by water titration method with sesame oil. Candesartan cilexetil has greater bioavailability in the form of micro emulsion and has better release. For this tween 80 and span 80 were used as the surfactants. The prepared formulations of candesartan were characterized for pH, viscosity, transparency, invitro drug release studies. Particle size and zeta potential of optimized formulation were characterized. In vitro release studies were performed and found to be satisfactory level for all the formulation. Candesartan cilexetil was successfully formulated as microemulsion and the results were found to be satisfactory.

  21. Phytochemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antihypertensive Activity of ethanolic extract of Allium hookeri Thaw. Enum.leaves Download Article

    Nepram Swarnalata, Shailendra Sharma, Dhanaraj Singh Thokchom, Ch. Dhananjoy Singh, Ajay Tiwari, Latha Sivapatham

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    Aim
    Phytochemical profiling and evaluation of antihypertensive activity of ethanolic extract of Allium hookeri Thaw. Enum leaves.
    Background
    Allium hookeri is a perennial herb which belongs to Alliaceae family, mostly grown in dampy soil. It is widely grown in every kitchen garden of Manipur.This plant is used as a spice and condiments by the Manipuris and its taste is preferred over the use of onion. Besides its nutritional value, it has medicinal value, so the local healers (Maiba) are using it for many ailments like reducing body temperature by applying the paste of the leaves on the forehead for reducing blood cholesterol and reducing blood pressure .There is a need to rationalise the folk lore medicine with modern scientific methods.
    Method
    The present study is an attempt to profile its phytochemical compounds and evaluation of its antihypertensive activity. Successive extraction is performed with various solvents by increasing the polarity of the solvents and the preliminary phytochemical and physico-chemical investigation were studied with various reagents according to IP, Ayurveda and WHO guidelines. Maximum tolerated dose is selected for the antihypertensive activity of ethanolic extract of Allium hookeri after conducting the acute toxicity studies by taking different doses i.e. 100 mg, 500 mg, 1000 mg, 2000 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extract of Allium hookeri leaves of doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were evaluated for its effect on blood pressure and heart rate using non-invasive (tail cuff method) blood pressure and heart rate using non-invasive (tail cuff method) blood pressure measuring apparatus in cadmium chloride induced model. Various biochemical parameters namely antioxidant enzymes like SOD, GPX, lipid profile were studied.
    Result
    Successive extraction shows the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids terpenoids, tannins, polyphenolsand phytosterols. The ethanolic extract of Allium hookeri leaf produces a significant (p<0.05) decrease in systolic pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic pressure and heart rate for all the test doses. The maximum effect is observed in 400 mg/kg dose. It also exhibits reduction in blood cholesterol levels, triglycerides, LDL but there is significant increase in HDL level.
    Conclusion
    The findings of the present study demonstrated that the leaves of Allium hookeri contain useful secondary metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds in good quantity. The plant may have potential for anticancer, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive and natural antioxidant. The ethanolic extract of Allium hookeri leaves possess active compounds which are responsible for antihypertensive effect in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hence, further research work has to be undertaken in order to isolate its active constituents and ascertain its useful bioactivity through modern scientific methods and thus we can rationalise the folk lore medicines through systematic and scientific way.

  22. Stability- Indicating LC Method for the Determination of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulations Download Article

    G.Ajithkumar, G.Muthukumar, A.Umamaheswari, A.Puratchikody

    Abstract

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    A novel stability-indicating LC assay method was developed and validated for determination of olmesartan medoxomil in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation in the presence of degradation products generated from forced degradation studies. A gradient reverse phase HPLC method was developed to determine the degraded products in the olmesartan medoxomil, using Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (150mm × 4.6mm, 5µ) column, with 0.1% ortho-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile with the initial ratio of 70:30 as a mobile phase. The olmesartan medoxomil was evaluated with the stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The degradation of olmesartan medoxomil was only observed in acid, base and 30% hydrogen peroxide conditions. The drug was found to be stable in the other stress conditions attempted. The degradation products were well determined from the main peak. The percentage recovery of olmesartan medoxomil ranged from 99.5% to 100.95% in the pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, LOD, LOQ, system suitability parameters, robustness, ruggedness. Thus the developed method was found to be stability-indicating and can be used for routine analysis for quantitative determination of olmesartan medoxomil in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.