Articles

  1. Antimalarial efficacy of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis and its effect on combination with Artesunate in Plasmodium berghei K173 induced mice model. Download Article

    Ashwini Kumar Singh, Aniraban Pal, Hemant Kumar Dutt
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-09)
    • No of Downloads: 41

    Abstract

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    Background

    Malaria is caused by parasite plasmodium species which is transmitted via the bite of infected mosquitoes, the key approach to treat malaria include prompt and effective treatment with Artemisinin based combination therapy. The search for additional antimalarial from plant extracts and their combination with Artemisinin derivatives must continue to help in effective treatment of the disease. 

    Aim

    To evaluate the antimalarial efficacy of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) and its effect on combination with Artesunate. 

    Materials and Methods

    The study was done in the Department of Molecular Bioprospection, CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (NAT) were chosen, dried, grounded and extracted with solvent of variable polarity. The bioactivity of NAT leaf extracts was carried out through Plasmodium berghei induced malaria in albino swiss mice animal model. The two independent experiments gave us the result to plan the third experiment on combination therapy. From the first experiment IC50 of Artesunate was derived and from the second experiment the Methanol 80% extract of NAT was found to be indicative of the plant bioactive. The experiment involving the combination therapy was taken up by combining 20mg/kg of Artesunate with 250mg/Kg and 500mg/Kg of Methanol 80% extract of NAT.

    Results

    Our study showed that by combining Methanol 80% extract of NAT with sub effective dose of Artesunate results in improvement of mean survival time, parasitaemia and haemoglobin levels.

    Conclusion

    Our experiment helped us to conclude that NAT leaves can be used as a lead for combination therapy. However, further detailed experiments related to the safety and pharmacokinetics of combination need to be considered.

  2. A questionnaire based study to assesss the Attitude and Perceptions of fifth term medical students at Mahadevappa Rampure medical college, Kalaburagi regarding teaching methods and learning in pharmacology Download Article

    Vallabhaneni Rajesh, Santoshkumar R. Jeevangi, Patil BV
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (10-15)
    • No of Downloads: 23

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    Background

    Pharmacology, an integral subject of learning medical course, is progressing by enormously. Consequently, changes in undergraduate teaching are the need of the hour.

    Objectives

    To determine the medical students’ perception and receive feedback on teaching and learning of pharmacology in our institution.

    Material and Methods

    This was a cross-sectional study based on the questionnaire. A pre-validated, predesigned questionnaire containing 14 points was administered to fifth term medical students. Second year students were enrolled for the study at their end of 5th term before university exams.

    Results

    77% wanted the faculty members to make more use of Audio-Visual aids for effective learning. 70% of the students opined that Discussion of graphs   has helped us in better understanding of mechanism of action of the drugs. 20% of the students were willing to consider pharmacology as one of the subjects for post-graduation.73% of the students agreed that pictures showing the adverse drug reactions and their Clinical correlation explained with LCD projector lectures were more interesting.

    Conclusion

    The results of our study revealed a positive feedback from students which will help in making the teaching program in pharmacology more encouraging.

  3. Ulceroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of aegle marmelos leaves in wistar rats Download Article

    Saranya R, Sumitha A, Padmavathi S, Dhananjay S Kotasthane, Manimekalai K
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-22)
    • No of Downloads: 17

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    Title

    Ulceroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in wistar rats..

    Objectives

     To evaluate the Ulceroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in wistar albino rats.

    Materials & Methods

     The study was conducted in 24 male adult wistar albino rats weighing 150-200g. 24 rats were randomized into 4 groups and ulceroprotective property of the extract was studied employing indomethacin induced ulcer model. Groups 1 & 2 were the normal and ulcer control respectively .Groups 3 and 4 were pretreated with misoprostol and extract (200mg/kg) respectively for 5 days followed by ulcer induction in groups 2, 3 and 4. Ulceroprotective activity was expressed as Percentage inhibition (PI). Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

    Results

    The result data indicated that, mean ulcer index was significantly lower in the leaf extract pretreated group [Group 4 (5.175±0.05)] compared to control group with a PI of 50%. Histopathological examination confirmed the ulceroprotective activity of the extract evident from the reduction in number and severity of gastric ulcers

    Conclusion

    Based on the above findings it can be inferred that ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaf extract has ulceroprotective property and pretreatment of the extract is beneficial in prevention of gastric ulcer.

  4. Metformin v/s glibenclamide: for intial therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital, a comparative study, for efficacy and tolerability Download Article

    Dr. Syed Wasif, Dr. Ashfaq Ahmed
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (23-32)
    • No of Downloads: 15

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    Background

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable disease world-wide. There are many groups of drugs available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. we use so many drugs as monotherapy or in combination to maintain normoglycemia. Because of paucity of published reports in the Indian literature regarding the pattern of use, efficacy, safety, tolerability of comparison of therapy of metformin and glibenclamide, the present study was taken up.

    Objectives

    To study the comparison of efficacy, safety and tolerability of metformin and glibenclamide in achieving normal blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Materials and methods

    100 properly selected subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included for the present study. The medication were used empirically as monotherapy  OD or BID in a continuation manner after the meals. Blood glucose level was measured at the baseline and daily afterwards for one month using standard techniques. The data collected was analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics. Tolerability and patient compliance for the prescribed medications were also assessed during the follow up visits.

    Results

    Methformin  therapy reported to control the blood glucose level more efficiently as compared to glibenclamide at the end of the study,  as 84% of subjects showed normoglycemia as compared to glibenclamide (68%). Also, incidence of hyperglycemic episodes were less in metformin therapy.  Subjects with metformin therapy reported some what more side effects compared to glibenclamide  therapy. The patient compliance for the prescribed medications was excellent.

    Interpretation and conclusion

    Blood glucose level can be effectively maintained under normal limits in Type 2 DM, with metformin therapy as compared to glibenclamide.

  5. An Observative Study of Comparison Between Non-Antibiotic And With Antibiotic Treatment of Acute Diarrhea In A Tertiary Care Hospital Download Article

    Dr. Syed Wasif, Dr. G.B.Doddamani
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (33-41)
    • No of Downloads: 16

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    Background

    Acute diarrhoeal diseases rank among one of the most common infectious disease in almost all age groups worldwide.. Antibiotic therapy is not recommended for the treatment of diarrhoea routinely, only severe cases should be treated with a suitable antibiotic. Because of paucity of published reports in the Indian literature regarding the pattern of use of antibiotics in treatment of acute diarrheal cases, the present study was taken up.

    Objectives

    To study the comparison of treatment of acute diarrheal cases with or without antibiotic, in terms of outcome, safety and tolerability.

    Materials and Methods

    100 properly selected subjects with acute diarrhea were included for the present study. The medications were used orally or intravenously for 5-7 days, depending upon the particular case. The treatment outcome was assessed by noting number of diarrhea and vomiting episodes, pulse, blood pressure, weight and skin pinch of the patient from day 1 till the infection resolve completely. The data collected was analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics. Tolerability and patient compliance for the prescribed medications were also assessed during the follow up visits.

    Results

    Most of the subjects showed complete resolution of episodes of diarrhea and vomiting, with normalization of blood pressure by 2nd day and all subjects by end of 5th day with a minor majority in non-antibiotic treatment.

    Interpretation and Conclusion

    The acute diarrheal cases can be effectively treated by empirical use of non-antibiotics medications itself. Antibiotics are reserved for particular cases only.