Articles

  1. Sedative and hypnotic effect of clonidine in mice Download Article

    Dr.S.Jeya Ponmari, Dr.R.Navajothi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (191-197)
    • No of Downloads: 36

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    Anxiety states and sleep disorders are common problems and sedative, hypnotic and anxiolytics are the most commonly   prescribed drugs. Benzodiazepines are the commonly used sedative and hypnotic drugs .They are often associated with adverse effects like excessive drowsiness, tolerance and dependence. Hence there is always a need for newer drugs with less side effects.  Clonidine is a a2 agonist which possess anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic effects. In this study sedative and hypnotic effect of clonidine is compared with diazepam in mice. Sedative effect was measured using actophotometer and hypnotic effect was measured by prolongation of ketamine induced hypnotic time in mice. Clonidine showed significant sedative and hypnotic effects in mice.

  2. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of neptunia natans on swiss albino mice Download Article

    P. Seetharam, Venkataiah G, Ajay Karthik, Humera Naaz
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (198-204)
    • No of Downloads: 21

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    The aim of the study is to study the phytochemical screening and antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of the neptunia natans leaf extract in Swiss albino mice. The Phytochemicals was extracted using ethanol as a solvent, The maximum tolerated doses study was performed with the dose of 2000mg/ kg of EENN leaf extract and 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of EENN was selected as test-I and test-II Respectively and imipramine was used as standard drug performed by despair swim test, tail suspension test and locomotor activity on Swiss albino mice. The EENN showed the significant ((p<0.001) antidepressant effect at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight against control treated group. It is concluded that that the oral administration ethanol extracts of neptunia natans leaf extract shown a significant antidepressant effect at 100mg/kg body weight may be attributed due to the presence phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids. Hence, further study is needed to identify, isolate the specific phytochemical drug candidate showing antidepressant activity and therapeutic confirmation of EENN leaf extract on different animal models.

  3. Optimization of cytarabine loaded nanocochleates for targeting LEUKEMIA by response surface methodology Download Article

    Niranjana Vaidhya Anantharaman, Ubaidulla Udhumansha, Grace Rathnam
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (205-221)
    • No of Downloads: 15

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    The main approach of the Nanocochleates is to target the cancer cells for the effective treatment against leukemia. Nanocochleate is more stable than any other drug carriers such as Liposomes, Niosomes, Nanoparticles and Nanoliposomes. Nanocochleate drug delivery is most effective in case of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Cytarabine is used for the leukemic treatment since long time and its pharmacological effect is well established for the nanocochleate preparation, as it is suitable for the formulation: by increasing the half-life, to avoid getting converted to inactive metabolite by intestinal enzymes, increases the permeability, reduces the dose etc. The storage and release of the conventional dosage form was affected by environmental factors as it can be overcome by the nanocochleates. Nanocochleates are prepared by using the various cross-linking agent like, calcium chloride, zinc chloride and chitosan. The Nanocochleates is optimized by the Response surface methodology using a Box and Behnken’s design, as it allows the determination of various factors on nanocochleates properties with a minimum number of experiments. The drug loaded Nanocochleates was prepared with high entrapment efficiency and prolonged drug release. From the results it can be concluded that the novel Nanocochleates drug delivery system has a promising carrier for treatment of leukemia.

  4. Prescription analysis and drug utilization pattern in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Dr.M.Gangadevi, M.D, Dr.G.Rajaram
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (222-227)
    • No of Downloads: 15

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    Background

    Periodic prescription analysis is one of the methods to assess drug utilization and rationality of prescribing. It should be regularly conducted to improve the quality of prescription and curb the menace of irrational prescribing which has become a worldwide problem.

    Objectives

    To analyze the rationality status of prescriptions and drug utilization pattern in inpatients admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Materials and Methods

    The present observational retrospective study was carried out in inpatients of Medicine, Surgery, Gynaecology, Pediatrics, Skin, Orthopaedics and Psychiatric departments of our tertiary care hospital over a period of three months during which data of 200 patients were collected. The age, sex and diagnosis of the patients were noted. The rationality of prescriptions was evaluated using WHO core indicators of drug utilization.

    Results

    Two hundred prescriptions were analysed in which 1036 drugs were prescribed. Mean number of drugs per prescription was 5.18. In our study, 75.97% drugs were prescribed by generic names and drugs from  EDL were 75.48%. Dosage forms used were mostly oral (60.71%). Infectious diseases were the most common illnesses (19.5%) followed by diseases of respiratory system. The most common drug groups prescribed were antimicrobials, analgesics & anti-inflammatory drugs, GIT , multivitamins and minerals. The incidence of poly-pharmacy was also common with maximum number of prescriptions (36.5%) having five drugs per prescription.

    Conclusion

    Prescription analysis is an important measure to improve the quality of care afforded by the hospitals. Establishment and implementation of appropriate clinical guidelines, use of essential medicines list, continuing medical education and regular update to the clinicians will help in implementing the principles of rational pharmacotherapeutics.

  5. Protective effect of Canthium parviflorum against potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia in rats Download Article

    Asokan Balakrishnan Ramajayam, Sengottuvelu Singaravel, Jaikumar Sankarapillai
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (228-232)
    • No of Downloads: 14

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    Canthium parviflorum, belonging to the Rubiaceae was a valuable source of new secondary metabolites, jused in  ayurvedic system of medicine, for various disorders. Traditionally, various parts of Canthium parviflorum were used to treat oedema, dysentery, spasm, scabies, diabetes etc. It also used to eliminate uric acid as well as increase the urinary output. Current study was aim to evaluate the antigout property of ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum. The study was conducted in both in-vitro and in-vivo models. Xantihine Oxidase inhibition method was used in in-vitro model and Potassium Oxonate induced hyperuricemia was adopted for in-vivo model. The Xanthine Oxidase inhibitor, Allopurinol was used as reference compound in both the models. Two dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum was evaluated against Potassium Oxonate induced hyperuricemia in SD rats. All the test drugs were administered once daily for 28 days and the protective effect was determined by measuring the plasma uric acid. In in-vitro model, the Canthium parviflorum showed Xanthine Oxidase inhibition activity and comparable as that of Allopurinol. In in-vivo model, both the doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum exhibited significant reduction in the plasma uric acid levels as compare to Potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia in rats. From the results it was concluded that, ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum produced antigout activity against Potassium oxonate induced gout in rats.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance among healthcare professionals in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Veena DR, Shanmukananda P
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (233-238)
    • No of Downloads: 13

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    Background

    India has the largest drug consuming population in the world. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are commonly encountered in daily practice, many of which are preventable .

    Objective

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR reporting and Pharmacovigilance concept among healthcare professionals.

    Materials and Methods

    It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire based survey conducted by the staff of the Department of Pharmacology at Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore in March 2017. 92 doctors participated in this study. Statistical analysis

    Collected data was analyzed by frequency, percentage and mean using the statistical software SPSS version13.0

    Results

    98% of respondents were aware of the existence of suspected ADR reporting system in India. 54.6% of respondents were of the opinion that non availability of reporting forms discouraged them from ADR reporting. All respondents were of the opinion that ADR reporting system would benefit patient care. 50( 54.3% )of respondents have never even attended any Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme on ADRs, which shows that there is lack of awareness creating programs stressing on the importance of ADR reporting.

    Conclusion

    This study revealed that though majority of the health-care professionals had good knowledge and positive attitude about Pharmacovigilance, the actual practice of ADR reporting was unsatisfactory.

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of hedychium coronarium linn. rhizome in alloxan induced diabetes in rat model Download Article

    Pranitha.K, Shalini.K, Pratibha.M, Suneha.S.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (239-249)
    • No of Downloads: 8

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    Purpose

    To study the hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Hedychium  coronarium Linn. rhizome in alloxan  induced  diabetes  in  rat  model.

    Methods

    The preliminary photochemical studies were carried out on the crude extract and the various chemical constituents present in the crude extract were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies as per OECD-23 guidelines to determine the safety doses of the root extract were carried out on male wistar strain of Albino rats. The various factors such as body weight, feed intake, blood glucose and serum insulin were regularly studied and evaluated.

    Results

    The hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Hedychium coronarium Linn. rhizome was studied on the various factors such as body weight, blood glucose levels of the alloxan induced diabetic rat model.

    Conclusion

    In present study administration of Hedychium coronarium Linn. rhizome extract produced a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum insulin, serum catalase and haemoglobin in alloxan induced rats. However, it seems promising that if this data will be validated in the future clinical trials, Hedychium coronarium rhizome extract may offer an alternative treatment for diabetes.