Articles

  1. Sedative and hypnotic effect of clonidine in mice Download Article

    Dr.S.Jeya Ponmari, Dr.R.Navajothi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (191-197)
    • No of Downloads: 74

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    Anxiety states and sleep disorders are common problems and sedative, hypnotic and anxiolytics are the most commonly   prescribed drugs. Benzodiazepines are the commonly used sedative and hypnotic drugs .They are often associated with adverse effects like excessive drowsiness, tolerance and dependence. Hence there is always a need for newer drugs with less side effects.  Clonidine is a a2 agonist which possess anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic effects. In this study sedative and hypnotic effect of clonidine is compared with diazepam in mice. Sedative effect was measured using actophotometer and hypnotic effect was measured by prolongation of ketamine induced hypnotic time in mice. Clonidine showed significant sedative and hypnotic effects in mice.

  2. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of neptunia natans on swiss albino mice Download Article

    P. Seetharam, Venkataiah G, Ajay Karthik, Humera Naaz
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (198-204)
    • No of Downloads: 57

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    The aim of the study is to study the phytochemical screening and antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of the neptunia natans leaf extract in Swiss albino mice. The Phytochemicals was extracted using ethanol as a solvent, The maximum tolerated doses study was performed with the dose of 2000mg/ kg of EENN leaf extract and 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of EENN was selected as test-I and test-II Respectively and imipramine was used as standard drug performed by despair swim test, tail suspension test and locomotor activity on Swiss albino mice. The EENN showed the significant ((p<0.001) antidepressant effect at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight against control treated group. It is concluded that that the oral administration ethanol extracts of neptunia natans leaf extract shown a significant antidepressant effect at 100mg/kg body weight may be attributed due to the presence phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids. Hence, further study is needed to identify, isolate the specific phytochemical drug candidate showing antidepressant activity and therapeutic confirmation of EENN leaf extract on different animal models.

  3. Optimization of cytarabine loaded nanocochleates for targeting LEUKEMIA by response surface methodology Download Article

    Niranjana Vaidhya Anantharaman, Ubaidulla Udhumansha, Grace Rathnam
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (205-221)
    • No of Downloads: 56

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    The main approach of the Nanocochleates is to target the cancer cells for the effective treatment against leukemia. Nanocochleate is more stable than any other drug carriers such as Liposomes, Niosomes, Nanoparticles and Nanoliposomes. Nanocochleate drug delivery is most effective in case of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Cytarabine is used for the leukemic treatment since long time and its pharmacological effect is well established for the nanocochleate preparation, as it is suitable for the formulation: by increasing the half-life, to avoid getting converted to inactive metabolite by intestinal enzymes, increases the permeability, reduces the dose etc. The storage and release of the conventional dosage form was affected by environmental factors as it can be overcome by the nanocochleates. Nanocochleates are prepared by using the various cross-linking agent like, calcium chloride, zinc chloride and chitosan. The Nanocochleates is optimized by the Response surface methodology using a Box and Behnken’s design, as it allows the determination of various factors on nanocochleates properties with a minimum number of experiments. The drug loaded Nanocochleates was prepared with high entrapment efficiency and prolonged drug release. From the results it can be concluded that the novel Nanocochleates drug delivery system has a promising carrier for treatment of leukemia.

  4. Prescription analysis and drug utilization pattern in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Dr.M.Gangadevi, M.D, Dr.G.Rajaram
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (222-227)
    • No of Downloads: 55

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    Background

    Periodic prescription analysis is one of the methods to assess drug utilization and rationality of prescribing. It should be regularly conducted to improve the quality of prescription and curb the menace of irrational prescribing which has become a worldwide problem.

    Objectives

    To analyze the rationality status of prescriptions and drug utilization pattern in inpatients admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Materials and Methods

    The present observational retrospective study was carried out in inpatients of Medicine, Surgery, Gynaecology, Pediatrics, Skin, Orthopaedics and Psychiatric departments of our tertiary care hospital over a period of three months during which data of 200 patients were collected. The age, sex and diagnosis of the patients were noted. The rationality of prescriptions was evaluated using WHO core indicators of drug utilization.

    Results

    Two hundred prescriptions were analysed in which 1036 drugs were prescribed. Mean number of drugs per prescription was 5.18. In our study, 75.97% drugs were prescribed by generic names and drugs from  EDL were 75.48%. Dosage forms used were mostly oral (60.71%). Infectious diseases were the most common illnesses (19.5%) followed by diseases of respiratory system. The most common drug groups prescribed were antimicrobials, analgesics & anti-inflammatory drugs, GIT , multivitamins and minerals. The incidence of poly-pharmacy was also common with maximum number of prescriptions (36.5%) having five drugs per prescription.

    Conclusion

    Prescription analysis is an important measure to improve the quality of care afforded by the hospitals. Establishment and implementation of appropriate clinical guidelines, use of essential medicines list, continuing medical education and regular update to the clinicians will help in implementing the principles of rational pharmacotherapeutics.

  5. Protective effect of Canthium parviflorum against potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia in rats Download Article

    Asokan Balakrishnan Ramajayam, Sengottuvelu Singaravel, Jaikumar Sankarapillai
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (228-232)
    • No of Downloads: 49

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    Canthium parviflorum, belonging to the Rubiaceae was a valuable source of new secondary metabolites, jused in  ayurvedic system of medicine, for various disorders. Traditionally, various parts of Canthium parviflorum were used to treat oedema, dysentery, spasm, scabies, diabetes etc. It also used to eliminate uric acid as well as increase the urinary output. Current study was aim to evaluate the antigout property of ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum. The study was conducted in both in-vitro and in-vivo models. Xantihine Oxidase inhibition method was used in in-vitro model and Potassium Oxonate induced hyperuricemia was adopted for in-vivo model. The Xanthine Oxidase inhibitor, Allopurinol was used as reference compound in both the models. Two dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum was evaluated against Potassium Oxonate induced hyperuricemia in SD rats. All the test drugs were administered once daily for 28 days and the protective effect was determined by measuring the plasma uric acid. In in-vitro model, the Canthium parviflorum showed Xanthine Oxidase inhibition activity and comparable as that of Allopurinol. In in-vivo model, both the doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum exhibited significant reduction in the plasma uric acid levels as compare to Potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia in rats. From the results it was concluded that, ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium parviflorum produced antigout activity against Potassium oxonate induced gout in rats.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance among healthcare professionals in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Veena DR, Shanmukananda P
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (233-238)
    • No of Downloads: 46

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    Background

    India has the largest drug consuming population in the world. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are commonly encountered in daily practice, many of which are preventable .

    Objective

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR reporting and Pharmacovigilance concept among healthcare professionals.

    Materials and Methods

    It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire based survey conducted by the staff of the Department of Pharmacology at Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore in March 2017. 92 doctors participated in this study. Statistical analysis

    Collected data was analyzed by frequency, percentage and mean using the statistical software SPSS version13.0

    Results

    98% of respondents were aware of the existence of suspected ADR reporting system in India. 54.6% of respondents were of the opinion that non availability of reporting forms discouraged them from ADR reporting. All respondents were of the opinion that ADR reporting system would benefit patient care. 50( 54.3% )of respondents have never even attended any Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme on ADRs, which shows that there is lack of awareness creating programs stressing on the importance of ADR reporting.

    Conclusion

    This study revealed that though majority of the health-care professionals had good knowledge and positive attitude about Pharmacovigilance, the actual practice of ADR reporting was unsatisfactory.

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of hedychium coronarium linn. rhizome in alloxan induced diabetes in rat model Download Article

    Pranitha.K, Shalini.K, Pratibha.M, Suneha.S.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (239-249)
    • No of Downloads: 38

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    Purpose

    To study the hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Hedychium  coronarium Linn. rhizome in alloxan  induced  diabetes  in  rat  model.

    Methods

    The preliminary photochemical studies were carried out on the crude extract and the various chemical constituents present in the crude extract were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies as per OECD-23 guidelines to determine the safety doses of the root extract were carried out on male wistar strain of Albino rats. The various factors such as body weight, feed intake, blood glucose and serum insulin were regularly studied and evaluated.

    Results

    The hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Hedychium coronarium Linn. rhizome was studied on the various factors such as body weight, blood glucose levels of the alloxan induced diabetic rat model.

    Conclusion

    In present study administration of Hedychium coronarium Linn. rhizome extract produced a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum insulin, serum catalase and haemoglobin in alloxan induced rats. However, it seems promising that if this data will be validated in the future clinical trials, Hedychium coronarium rhizome extract may offer an alternative treatment for diabetes.

  8. Retrospective study of cutaneous adverse drug reactions reported at adverse drug reaction monitoring centre (AMC) at GMC/GGH, Guntur, Andhra - Pradesh, India Download Article

    Dr. Vijaya Kumari Suryadevara. M.D, Dr. Meena Kumari Amancharla. M.D, Mr. Pavan Kumar Kandula. Pharm D
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (250-258)
    • No of Downloads: 40

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    Background

    One of the most common manifestation of adverse drug reactions is cutaneous adverse drug reaction, which includes skin and it's appendages, mucous membranes, occurring with a wide variation in morphological pattern.

    Aim

    To know the incidence, patterns and causality of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions (CADRs), reported at ADR Monitoring Centre (AMC), Guntur Medical College/GGH.

    Materials & Methods

    After obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 840 CADRs reported to ADR Monitoring Centre (AMC), Guntur, over a period of 3 years   were included in the study. For of each CADR - demographic details, suspected drug used, and concomitant medication details from their suspected Adverse Drug Reaction (sADR) reporting forms were taken.  Causality assessment was done for each CADR with the help of WHO Causality assessment scale. Descriptive statistics were applied for the results analysis. 

    Results

    Out of 840 CADRs, 567 (67.5%) occurred in females and 273 (32.5%) occurred in males. Age distribution ranged from 2 months to 75 years with a mean age of 37.09 + 12.74 SD years. 28 (3%) CADRs were serious and required hospitalization, 812(97%) CADRs were not serious and most of them were medically treated and recovered. 647 (77%) CADRs were due to antiretroviral drugs, 109 (13%) were due to anticancer drugs, 84 (10%) were due to antibacterial agents, NSAIDs, antiepileptics and other drugs. Maculopapular rash (58.6%) was the most common CADR observed in the study and other CADRs were pruritus (15%), mouth ulcerations (10.7%) etc. 

    Conclusion

    Most of the CADRs were due to antiretroviral drug combinations and anticancer drug combinations. To prevent and reduce the incidence of CADRs, development and implementation of various strategies is necessary.

  9. Evaluation of pharmacology teaching-learning methods in a government medical college Download Article

    Dr. S. Jeya Ponmari, M.D, Dr. Priya, M.D
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (259-264)
    • No of Downloads: 28

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    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate students’ knowledge and attitude on the various teaching methods and evaluation methods in pharmacology.

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tamilnadu using a pretested questionnaire. One hundred pretested questionnaires were distributed among the second MBBS students and all the students responded. Data analysis is done using MS Excel spreadsheet and percentage observations were noticed. The study demonstrated that the students prefer combined method teaching using PPT and chalk and talk and many students gave the opinion of inclusion of MCQs in evaluation. Majority of the students answered that prescription writing in practical classes is more interesting.

  10. Prescribing pattern of drugs in SNCU at a tertiary care hospital in South India Download Article

    Uma Maheswari Nagireddy, Gopinadh Ganji, Rajesh Kancherla, Hima Bindu Gujjarlamudi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (265-270)
    • No of Downloads: 24

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    BACKGROUND

    SNCU (Sick New Born Care Unit) is meant to reduce the case fatality among sick newborns, either born within the hospital or outside including home delivery. The study of prescribing pattern is a part of the medical audit and seeks to monitor, evaluate and if necessary, suggest modification in prescribing practices to make medical care rational and cost effective.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    This is a record based observational study carried out in sick new born care unit, at a tertiary care hospital in south India. The study was conducted for a period of 6 months from Jan 2017 to June 2017. The data of 144 neonates admitted was collected from the records of SNCU. The recorded data were analyzed by Microsoft office excel 2007.

    RESULTS

    In the present study, the pattern of drug use in 144 sick new borns was assessed. There was male predominance. Majority of the sick new borns were admitted in early neonatal period. About 21% being preterm , 32% of them were low birth weight and most common observed reason for admission to SNCU was Respiratory distress syndrome(41%) followed by  Premature delivery (15%), neonatal jaundice(14%)  , meconium aspiration syndrome(9%). Most commonly prescribed drugs were Antibiotics (90.3%)   followed by Vitamins K (38.2%), Minerals (26.4%), Antacids (22%), Antiprotozoal (18.8%), Antiepileptics (14.6%). Among antibiotics amikacin (85.42%) was the most commonly prescribed followed by Piperacillin +Tazobactum (70.84%), Meropenam (27%), Cefotaxim (9.7%), Linezolid (6.25%) and Vancomycin (2.8%). 

    CONCLUSION

    Neonates being vulnerable group due to immaturity of their body functions, great care needs to be taken to minimize the number of drugs per neonate. Data reported in this study about various drugs prescribed, antibiotics being of major concern will be helpful in establishing priority agendas for future drug studies. The main aim of our study is to encourage the treating physicians for creating specific priorities for developing standard guidelines in drug usage specifically for neonates.

  11. Changing trend of antimicrobial resistance pattern in UTI: one year retrospective study Download Article

    M. Agrawal, M Ramteke, R. Hishikar, N Sherwani
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (271-279)
    • No of Downloads: 28

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    Background

    The distribution of uropathogen and their susceptibility pattern to antibiotics vary regionally and even in same geographical region, and they change over time and during various season. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of locally occurring uropathogen is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infection.

    AIM: To study the most common uropathogen isolated, antimicrobial resistance pattern, and its seasonal trend if any from urine samples of patients suspected to be suffering from UTI.

    Study design

    Retrospective study of one-year period from 1st Jan 2017 to 30 Dec 2017.

    Materials and methods

    The culture and sensitivity data of the uropathogens from suspected cases of UTI were collected from the records of Microbiology Department, and the organisms were identified by standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was carried out. Percentage analysis was done.

    Results

    A total of 5629 urine samples were analyzed, of which 1829 (32%) samples showed significant growth of uropathogens. Gram-negative rods accounted for more than 85% of the infections. Uropathogenic E.coli was the most predominant uropathogen (36%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (27%) and Klebsiella (10.5%).  We observed that resistance to Ampicillin is high ranging from 73.8%-95.2%, followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid 68.5%-90.4%, Cotrimoxazole 40.2%-83.3%, whereas nitrofurantoin 3.95%-9.50%, and carbapenem group (imipenam, meropenam) 0.1%-4.45% showed least resistance   over one year period. We also observed that the incidence of UTI due to E.coli rises in summer months but no seasonal variation to resistance could be inferred, rather there was a progressive increase in resistance to all antimicrobial over one year period.

    Conclusion

    Uropathogenic E Coli are most sensitive to nitrofurantoin and carbapenem group, so we recommend them for empirical treatment in UTI. Public health guidelines must stress on measures to prevent UTI in summers.

  12. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of syzygium cumini on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats Download Article

    Swadhin Ranjan Behera, Sekkizhar M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (280-284)
    • No of Downloads: 19

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    Aim and objectives

    To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Syzygium cumini seed powder extract on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    Materials and Methods

    Wister Albino rats weighing 230-250gm were divided in to 5 groups. Diabetes induced in four groups by administration of streptozotocin (45mg/kg/i.p). G-I severs as control and normal saline was administered. G-II diabetic control, G-III Diabetic control (Streptozotocin 45mg/kg/i.p/0day) + Glibenclamide (5mg/kg/orally/120 days), G-IV: Diabetic control (Streptozotocin 45mg/kg/i.p/0day)+ Aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini seeds (250mg/kg/orally/120 days) and G-V: Diabetic control (Streptozotocin 45mg/kg/i.p/0day) + Aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini seeds (500mg/kg/orally/120 days). All the drugs were respective groups for 120 days. Blood was collected from the groups at different time intervals (0day. 15th day, 30th day, 60th day and 120th day). Plasma was separated and used for estimation of glucose.

    Results

    Comparison of glucose values of control group with other groups showed that there was significant decrease in glucose values in other groups p<0.05. But 15th day group-III and V showed significant decrease in glucose level compared to group-IV. G-V showed decrease glucose levels compared with other groups at 30th, 60th and 120th day. Comparison on 0 day between groups showed insignificant difference in blood glucose level (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    High dose of S.C seed extract showed results like standard oral hypoglycemic drug. There is a requirement of more studies on this plant seed to find active phytochemicals.

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of peltophorumpterocarpum (DC.) K.Heyne leaf, flower and seed coat extracts Download Article

    S.Kannan, R.Askar Ali, P.Bharathi, M.Deva, S.Dharani, LK.Dhivya
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (285-290)
    • No of Downloads: 32

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    Leaf, flower and seed coat extract of Peltophorumpterocarpum (DC.) K.Heyne. family CAESALPINIACEAE was found to havecertaintherapeutical valueswhich may usedto treat stomatitis, insomnia, skin problems, constipation and ring worm also itis known to be a good sleep inducer, bark is used for dysentery. In vitro antibacterial and anti fungal screening of total methanolic extract of Peltophorumpterocarpum (DC.) K.Heyne..Against bacteria and fungal by standard well plate method used for determining antibacterial and antifungal activity. The crude extract was dissolved in the solvents to obtain 40mg/ml, 10mg/ml of dilutions. The antimicrobial activities were determined by measuring the diameter of the inhibitory zones in mm using a zone reader. It shows moderate antibacterial and not any antifungal activity, Peltophorumpterocarpum (DC.)K.Heyne. can be used as antibacterial activities.

  14. Quality by design approach to analytical method development for simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and famotidine in their combined dosage form by RP-HPLC method Download Article

    Jayaprakash J, Vijay Amirtharaj R, Senthil Kumar N
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (291-298)
    • No of Downloads: 17

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    This article aims to explain the steps for application of quality by design (QbD) concept to analytical method development and validation, by using an example of simultaneous determination of Famotidine and Ibuprofen in its pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC. By using QbD tools, enable earlier understanding and identification of variables affecting the method performance. Fractional design and Central composite design were used for screening the variables and optimization of chromatographic conditions with building the design space employing a three factor three level Box– Behnken design (BBD) using ANOVA software. A QbD guide is described from identification of analytical target profile to definition of control strategy. The optimized chromatographic method was performed using 0.01M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4): methanol: acetonitrile (50:50, 60:40, 40:60, 35:65 % v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate 1.0mL/ min and UV detection at 225 nm.

  15. Prescription pattern and rational drug use in cases of enteric fever in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Dr. Virendra Kushwaha, Dr. Mohit Trivedi, Mr. Nagesh Chaganti, Dr. Pooja Agrawal, Dr. Tanu Midda
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (299-303)
    • No of Downloads: 17

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    Introduction

    Irrational use of medication is one of the main causes of resistance. It can be prevented by giving right drug to right patients. Hence the present study was conducted to evaluate the prescribing pattern and rational drug use in cases of enteric fever.

    Aim

    To study of prescription pattern and rational drug use in cases of enteric fever in a tertiary care hospital.

    Methods

    A cross sectional study was carried out by evaluating prescription of 161 subjects who had definite diagnosis of enteric fever in Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of General Medicine at Government Medical College, Kannauj from May 2018 to July 2018. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software and results were expressed as percentage.

    Results

    In this study among 161 patients of enteric fever, 56.52% were males and 43.47% were females. There were two subset of age groups in which enteric fever is most common i.e. 58.3% in age group between 21 to 40 years followed by 27.9% in age group between 1 to 20 years. Most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents were IIIrd generation Cephalosporin’s (70.1%) followed by 1st Generation Fluoroquinolones (51.5%). Some patients also received other groups of antibiotics like Macrolides (16.1%), Metronidazole (3.7%) and Penicillins (0.6%). All the medications were prescribed using their generic names and in small letters of English. They were prescribed oral medications (86.95%) and were duly signed by the physicians but none of them followed up. 93.1% received Paracetamol as antipyretic and 2.4% of the patients received Metaclopramide as antiemetic.

    Conclusions

    The present study provided prescribing pattern in outdoor patients of tertiary hospital which highlighted the current drawbacks like polytherapy, not abiding with antibiotic policy and principles of pharmacoeconomics in prescribing antibiotics to patients of enteric fever. There was less possibility of doing sensitivity test and prescribing them single drug therapy in tertiary care hospital because most of the critical patients are referred from other centres.