Articles

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Toona Ciliata in laboratory animals Download Article

    Dr. Sam Pavan Kumar Gandamalla, Dr. Anil C, Dr. Pushpalatha Chinnam, D.Sathish Kumar
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (389-395)
    • No of Downloads: 95

    Abstract

    close

    Toona ciliata is popularly used as herbal remedy for various ailments. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use especially in pain and inflammation remains unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaves of Toona ciliata in laboratory animals. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Toona ciliata was used to investigate the acute effect on analgesia by Hot-plate test in mice and on inflammation in rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The extract showed a significant (p<0.06) dose dependent increase in reaction time in mice in the hot-plate test at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract also exhibited promising anti-inflammatory effect as demonstrated by statistically significant (p<0.06) inhibition of paw volume by 43.33% at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight at the fourth hour of study. This study suggests that the ethanol extract of Toona ciliata have both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner which supported its use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in folk medicine. This plant may be a useful source of lead components in the treatment of pain and inflammation.

  2. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of abelmoschus esculentus in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats Download Article

    Dr.K.Anantha Babu, Dr.E.N.P.Sainath, D.Sathish Kumar
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (396-404)
    • No of Downloads: 91

    Abstract

    close

    Background

    Abelmoschus esculentus  is traditionally well known for its versatile uses. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic action of ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus esculentus in Streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats.

    Methods

    To look for the antidiabetic effect, the albino rats were divided into 5 groups, each consisting of 6 animals. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of Streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Standard drug, Glibenclamide and ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus esculentus at doses 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight was fed to the rats and it was continued till the end of the study. The blood glucose levels were estimated on day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 day. The standard drug and the extract were fed from day 4 onwards.

    Results

    The antidiabetic property of the extract has shown increasing trend with increase in dose and there was a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels with increased period of exposure to the test drug.

    Conclusions

    Results obtained in this study substantiate the anti-diabetic activity of Abelmoschus esculentus seeds.

  3. Study of efficacy and safety of second line art regimen in HIV/AIDS patients in a tertiary care centre Download Article

    Savithri Desai, Harinika G
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (405-412)
    • No of Downloads: 66

    Abstract

    close

    Background

    The advent of HAART has decreased the progression to AIDS and AIDS related mortality and prolonged the survival .On the other hand, advances in the antiretroviral therapy have increased life span of HIV positive patients significantly. However, increased duration of antiretroviral treatment in such treatment-experienced patients is associated with the problems of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug interactions and emergence of drug resistant strains of HIV.

    Aims and objectives

    To assess the therapeutic response of second line ART regimen consisting of tenofovir + lamivudine + atazanavir and ritonavir by CD4 count and plasma viral load in HIV patients.

    Methods

    This was a longitudinal, prospective, observational study carried out in HIV positive patients attending ART centre, government general hospital, Vijayawada. Patients receiving first-line ARV drugs for at least six months were evaluated clinically, immunologically (CD4 count) and virologically (plasma viral load) for failure and started on second-line ART from November 2011 to November 2012 were included in the study.

    Results

    Out of 100 patients, 52 patients developed ADRs. In this 52, 34 patients had CD4+ count <250 cells/cu.mm and the remaining 18patients had CD4+ count >250 cells/cu.mm. The observed difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). The plasma viral load after six months of therapy were decreased compared to the initial mean values.

    Conclusion

    The ADRs were most common in those patients whose CD4+ count is <250 cells/cu.mm. Early treatment outcome with second line ART in terms of immunological improvement and viral suppression was good in treatment experienced patients. Though atazanavir containing regimen is more efficacious but produces more serious adverse effects.

  4. An observative study of comparison of efficacy and tolerability between atenolol and combination of amolodopine with atenolol in the maintence therapy of hypertension in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Dr. Wasif S, Dr. Mohsin
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (413-420)
    • No of Downloads: 64

    Abstract

    close

    Background

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age. The beta receptor antagonists provide effective therapy for all grades of hypertension. Compared with other classes of antihypertensive agents, there is a greater frequency of achieving blood pressure control with Ca2+ channel blockers as monotherapy. Because of paucity of published reports in the Indian literature regarding the pattern of use, efficacy, safety, tolerability of comparison of therapy of atenolol and combination of amolodopine and atenolol, the present study was taken up.

    Objectives

    To study the comparison of efficacy, safety and tolerability of atenolol and the combination of amolodopine and atenolol in achieving blood pressure control.

    Materials and methods

    100 properly selected subjects with hypertension were included for the present study. The medication were used empirically as monotherapy or combination, OD or BID  in a continuation manner. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline and daily afterwards for one month. The data collected was analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics. Tolerability and patient compliance for the prescribed medications were also assessed during the follow up visits.

    Results

    Blood pressure is maintained at the baseline level in both the study subjects. Fluctuations in baseline blood pressure were seen more in atenolol compare to combination therapy. Few non-serious adverse effects were noted in both the subjects, but more in combination therapy .The patient compliance for the prescribed medications was excellent.

    Interpretation and conclusion

    Hypertension can be more effectively treated by combination therapy than monotherapy of atenolol. But frequency of adverse effects is also more in combination therapy compare to monotherapy.

  5. Histopathological and x-ray based evaluation of anti-rheumatoid effect of chrysin in freund’s induced arthritis in wistar albino rats Download Article

    Vishnu R, Krishnan R
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (421-426)
    • No of Downloads: 59

    Abstract

    close

    Background

    Arthritis is one of the leading cause of disability in the world. A radiographic survey suggested that the prevalence of arthritis rises from 1% below 30 years and 50% in above 60 years. With this background the present study was conducted to evaluate the Anti-  rheumatoid effect of chrysin in freund’s induced arthritis in rats. 

    Aim and Objective

    To evaluate the anti-rheumatoid effect of Chrysin in freund’s induced arthritis in rats.

    Materials and Methods

    This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University. It was done in the period of Jan 2012-Jan 2013 (1 year). 30 rats were divided in two five groups each group of 6 rats. G-I (Distilled water), G-II (Freund’s complete adjuvant), G-III (Dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg), G-IV (Chrysin 50mg/kg) and G-V (Chrysin 100 mg/kg). All the animals were treated with their respective drugs for 56 days. –ray of rats joint was taken at 1st ,7th , 14th, 28th and 56th day. At the end of experiment Rats were sacrificed and joint was separated and used for histopathology.

    Results

    G-II rats showed significant changes in joint X-ray and histopathology compared to control group. Co-administration of dexamethasone significantly prevented arthritic changes in joint compared to G-II. High dose chrysin showed effect similar to dexamethasone. 

    Conclusion

    Chrysin administration significantly prevented freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. It can be used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory joint disorders.   

  6. The effect of escitalopram on biomarkers of depression in patients of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) suffering with depression Download Article

    Vijay Kumar Singh, Virendra Kushwaha, Pooja Agrawal, Rakesh Kumar Dixit, Amit Kumar, Dhananjay Chaudhari, Anand Kumar, Mahesh Chandra Bindal
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (427-433)
    • No of Downloads: 70

    Abstract

    close

    Aim

    To study the effect of Escitalopram on biomarkers of depression in patients of   multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) suffering with depression.

    Material and Methods

    Total 35 diagnosed MDR TB patients were selected from Tuberculosis and Respiratory diseases department complaining depression symptoms in their MDR TB treatment follow up. These patients were referred to Psychiatry OPD for diagnosis of depression.

    Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score was computed to categorize depression as mild, moderate and severe depression. 24 MDR TB patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression were enrolled. Escitalopram (10mg) were administered to enrolled patients already taken Standard MDR-tuberculosis treatment. Follow up was done at day 30 and day 120.

    Depression improvement assessed by HDRS score and biomarker alterations assessed by serum lipid profile- Serum cholesterol, Triglyceride (Tg), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL). Data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and paired t – test.

    Result

    Total 19 patients had completed the study. 3 and 2 patients were lost in follow up at day 30 and 120 respectively.  Baseline HDRS score (13.53 ± 2.58) were decreased at day 30 (6.11 ± 1.28) and Day 120 (3.05 ± 0.91) which were significant (p˂0.001). Lipid profile parameters were not increased significantly at any follow up.

    Conclusion

    Escitalopram drug therapy improved depression symptoms without significantly affecting the biomarkers for depression (lipid profile).   

  7. Study on prescribing pattern and drug interactions of dyslipidemic agents in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Shivashankar. V, Nissy Anu Wilson, Noel Joseph, Priyadharshini. A, Shereen Baby
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (434-438)
    • No of Downloads: 47

    Abstract

    close

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major contributors to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in our society.  Dyslipidemic drugs are widely used either for prophylaxis or treatment of dyslipidemia. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are a widely used class of lipid lowering drugs, which are generally well-tolerated, with an acceptable side effect profile. They are the first line of therapy for lipid lowering and attaining ATP III goals.

    The objective of the study is to determine the prescribing pattern and drug interactions of dyslipidemic agents in the selected study population as per the inclusion criteria. A prospective observational study was conducted. The data was collected during regular ward rounds and was analysed. 

    The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher (62%) in the study population. The majority of patients 144 (96%) were receiving lipid lowering therapy with statins and 5 (3.33%) patients were on combination therapy including a statin and fibrate and 1 (0.67%) patient was on fibrate alone. Atorvastatin is majorly prescribed in 137 (91.95%) patients followed by rosuvastatin in 12 (8.05%) patients. The drug interaction between dyslipidemic agents were analysed and categorized, there were 2 (1.55%) major, 125 (96.90%) moderate and 2 (1.55%) minor possible drug-drug interactions were found.

    The results reveal that statins were prescribed more compared to other classes of dyslipidemic agents. Atorvastatin was the most commonly prescribed statin in the study site for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Atorvastatin utilization is significantly higher than rosuvastatin, even though recent studies describes that rosuvastatin is more efficacious and safe when compared to atorvastatin. Further studies may justify effectiveness of various statins.

  8. Prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children of private kindergarten in Jigjiga town, eastern Ethiopia Download Article

    GirmaTadesse, TesfayeGobana, FirehiwotMesfin, EdaoTesa, NishaMaryJoseph, S.Palani
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (439-446)
    • No of Downloads: 47

    Abstract

    close

    Introduction

    Childhood obesity has become a public health concern in many industrialized and less-developed nations. Of the world’s 43 million overweight and obese preschoolers, 35 million live in developing countries. Only EDHS 2011 report is available about the extent of preschool children and overweight and obesity in Ethiopia and no data at all in the study area, Jigjiga Town. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Overweight /Obesity and associated factors among preschool-age children of private kindergarten (KG) in Jigjiga town, eastern Ethiopia.

    Materials and Methods

    The study subjects were selected by simple random sampling in proportion to the size of the children in KGs. A structured questionnaire, portable electronic weight scales with a digital screen and height board / commercial standiometer was used to collect the data. NCHS and Center for Disease Control and Prevention chart was used to locate the percentile in which children are found after BMI was calculated.

    Results

    This study indicated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children were19.9% and 14.7% respectively. Children who often reach junk food are more likely to be overweight/obese than children who seldom reach (AOR=10.484, 95%CI= (2.006-54.790)). Children who eat diary food product often are more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those who eat seldom (AOR= 13.570, 95%CI= (2.461-74.820)). Children who have overweight/obese mothers are 9 times more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those who have none overweight/obese mother (AOR=9.030, 95%CI= (2.087-39.067)).

    Conclusion and Recommendation

    This study showed that prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children were high so it is recommended that Regional Health Bureau, Education Bureau and others NGO’s working in the region should work hard inawareness creation on eating too many sweet, TV watching and maternal BMI that may contributes to overweight and obesity in preschool-age children using Kindergarten as an opportunity.

  9. A study of role of allopurinol in prevention of ischemic myocardial injury in rabbits Download Article

    Dr. Ambrish Kumar Gupta, Dr. Neet Lakhani, Dr Kunal Barua, Dr. Gaurang Pandey, Dr. Praveen Katiyar, Dr Ankita Shukla
    • Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (447-454)
    • No of Downloads: 31

    Abstract

    close

    The pathogenic process following ischemia of heart and brain is responsible a toll of deaths world over. The radicals like superoxide, hydroxyl radical, alkoxy or lipoxy radical can induce a huge damage over cardiovascular system. Xanthine oxidase mediated production of superoxide radicals has been accepted mostly as the key step in production of oxy-radicals mediated myocardial damage. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and inhibitor of uric acid formation has been selected as one of the antioxidants in this study. Allopurinol showed decreased mortality in the test animals. It has also reduced the ST elevation in post- reperfusion stage. It has also attenuated the infarct size significantly (p<0.05) owing to its capability to prevent excess formation of oxyradicals. It has also been substantiated that not acutely but chronically administered xanthine oxidase inhibitors may have its more profound anti-oxidant effect.