Articles

  1. Migraine: prevalence, body mass index, blood group and comorbidities; a prospective observational study Download Article

    Kirsha K S, C I Sajeeth, Sona Mohandas, Sharafudheen PK, Prasanth Parameswaran4, Bijiraj V, Mohammad Mazharudheen
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (255-261)
    • No of Downloads: 90

    Abstract

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    Migraine is the most common neurological condition in the world affecting about 1 in 10 people. It is 3 times more common in women. Several studies suggest an association of migraine with the body mass index, blood group and comorbidities. The aim of this study is to determine a possible relationship between the prevalence, symptoms, triggers and comorbidities of migraine as well as its association with obesity and blood group.

    Design

    A prospective observational study

    Subject and Methods

    A total of 204 patients with migraine were included whose age ranged between 18 to 65 years of both gender. The prevalence of migraine and its relation to body mass index and blood group were analyzed.

    Results

    The study included 83.82% females and 16.18% males. 36.6% of the included patients have a normal body weight and the study concluded that majority (90%) have O positive blood group.  Symptoms are experienced mostly during the attack stage and the major trigger was emotional stress affecting 53% of study population.

    Conclusion

    Prevalence of migraine is high among females. Younger age and female sex are other contributory factors as prevalence of migraine. Emotional stress is mediating as the major trigger of migraine and excluding the normal eight subjects, pre-obese patients have higher risk for migraine. The co-morbidities didn’t suggest any apparent relation with migraine, though hypothyroidism was observed in a few populations.

  2. Antibiotic resistance and usage – a questionnaire based study among medical students in southern India Download Article

    Rekha MS, Basavaraj Bhandare, Afzal Khan AK
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (262-266)
    • No of Downloads: 82

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    Objectives

    To study the knowledge, attitude, perception and practices (KAP) of medical students regarding antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and usage

    Methods

    A cross sectional questionnaire based survey among second and third year medical students of a teaching hospital was conducted, whereby their KAP regarding antibiotic use and resistance was assessed by using five point likert scale whose  responses ranged from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree,” always” to “never” and “very important” to “unimportant”. Data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics

    Observations

    The response rate was 100% among the 150 students who were asked to participate in the survey. The number of respondents who agreed that antibiotic resistance is an important and serious public health issue in their hospital is (n=114, 76%). Majority, 94% (n=141) were aware that bacteria are not responsible for causing colds and flu. Among the factors which govern their choice/selection of an antibiotic, the ability of the antibiotic to promote resistance was rated as the most important factor by 95% (n=143) of them. Antibiotic cost was considered as important by only 52% (n=78) of the respondents.

    Conclusion

    The data obtained helps us arrive at a conclusion with respect to the educational needs of the students regarding antibiotic resistance and guides us towards those aspects which deserve our attention, helping us plan for any future educational intervention as well.  

  3. Pharmacist’s interventions in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease Download Article

    D. Sowmya Sri, K. Ritka Raj, G. Navya, K. Sai Sudha, Dr. Sneha
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (267-271)
    • No of Downloads: 33

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    Aim

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex debilitating condition affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. With the increased prevalence in risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in an aging population, CKD prevalence is also expected to increase. Increased awareness and understanding of the overall CKD burden by health care teams (patients, clinicians, and pharmacist’s) is warranted so that overall care and treatment management may improve. Objectives included were assessing the drug usage in ckd, management of co morbid conditions, patient education and support during ckd transition and improving quality of life.

    Methodology

    This is a prospective observational study conducted over a period of six months using questionnaires as a tool. The study was conducted at Nephrology ward of AWARE GLOBAL HOSPITAL LB. NAGAR. Patients who admitted to the Nephrology ward of the hospital during a six month period from October 2016 to March 2017 are enrolled.

    Results

    Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 103patients were selected from the inpatient department over a period of 6 months for the present study. Among 103 patients The gender distribution found in the following study was males ( 65%) and females (35%),the age distribution was found to be 20-30 yrs (3.80%), 30-40yrs (9.70%), 40-50 yrs (20.38%), 50-60yrs (26.20%), 60-70yrs (27.18%), 70-80yrs (10.67%), 80-90 (1.94). Of the total 103 cases enrolled the co morbid conditions found were Hypertension (66%), diabetes mellitus (21.35%), hypothyroidism (10.60%) and urinary tract infections (1.94%). A total of 594 drugs were prescribed during the study period, out of which NSAIDS (27.03%), PPI’s (23.13%), Anti-Hypertensive (27.17%), Diuretics (12.28%), ESA’s (2.86%), Anti-hyperlipidaemias (2.02%) and Anti-diabetics (11.85%).

    Conclusion

    The only way to manage CKD is slowing the progression of kidney deterioration. Finally we concluded that with time there happened to be change in treatment strategies and quality of life by pharmacist’s interventions. Our results were showed that the choice of treatment reasonable complying with k/DOQI Guidelines in the management of CKD. This study concludes that Anti-hypertensive’s, Anti-diabetics and Diuretics were used majorly to improve condition and counseling was given to improve adherence to therapy and quality of life. Counseling included Dietary protein, salt, caloric restriction, decreased fluid intake, Physical exercises and Social habits for improving quality of life. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the 12th and 17th leading cause of death and disability globally, respectively [1]. The number of deaths due to chronic disease in India was around 5.21 million in 2008 and is expected to be 7.63 million by 2020 [2]. Globally, it is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality leading to worldwide health crisis [3].. Almost 60% of the deaths worldwide are due to CKD and ~80% of deaths occur in low and middle income countries [4]. CKD is a major problem and its prevalence will continue to rise with increasing elderly population and the number of patients with diabetes and hypertension [5].

  4. A comprehensive review on atrial myxoma Download Article

    Mr. Jeeva James, Mrs. Shyni J.R, Dr. Sujith Abraham
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (272-280)
    • No of Downloads: 79

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    An atrial myxoma is a noncancerous tumor in the upper left or right side of the heart. It grows on the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This wall is called the atrial septum. Atrial myxomas are the most common primary heart tumours. It usually arises as a polypoid, gelatinous structure attached by a pedicle to the left atrium. Myxomas may arise less commonly in the right atrium or the ventricles. From an epidemiologic perspective, cardiac myxomas are divided into the following 2 categories, those that arise sporadically (non-familial myxomas), which account for about 95% of cases, and those that occur in association with a so-called myxoma syndrome (familial myxomas), which account for about 5%. Sudden death may occur in 15% patients with atrial myxoma. Sporadic cardiac myxomas occur approximately twice as often in women as in men. The exact origin of myxoma cells remains uncertain, but they are thought to arise from remnants of subendocardial cells or Multipotential mesenchymal cells in the region of the fossa ovalis, which can differentiate along a variety of cell lines. Signs and symptoms of mitral stenosis, endocarditis, mitral regurgitation, and collagen vascular disease can simulate those of atrial myxoma. The treatment of choice for myxomas is surgical removal. It is usually curative. After the diagnosis has been established, surgery should be performed promptly because of possibility of embolic complications or sudden death. The aim of this review is to find the cause, symptoms and treatment of atrial myxoma, also to make the aware of atrial myxoma.

  5. Evaluation of anti-tubercular activity of leaves of vitex negundo by in –vitro method Download Article

    Bhargaviganiwada, CH.S.V.Praddep, K.V.Swapna, A. Tejawini, Sunitha .R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (281-288)
    • No of Downloads: 67

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    One third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with tuberculosis. As the searches are going on anti-tubercular natural flavonoids. The leaves of Vitex negundo were found to be rich in phytochemical constituents with may have immense pharmacological actions. The literature survey revealed the presences of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and  terpenoids, carbohydrates, proteins  in the entire plant in which flavonoids are responsible for anti-tubercular activity. The results of the present study  indicates that different extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo exhibited anti-tubercular activity against M.tuberculosis (H37RV Strain) at the doses of 100µg/ml and 50 µg/ml shows the inhibition of growth among all 8 concentrations such as 0.8,1.6,3.12,6.25,12.5,25,50,100 µg/ml by using Alamar blue assay method for in-vitro evaluation of anti-tubercular activity. 

  6. Fight the iodine deficiency: advances in the iodine supplement as life saving dot-- a critical review Download Article

    Keerthi G, Raja K. Rajeswari
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (289-296)
    • No of Downloads: 77

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    Iodine is a trace element naturally present in some foods and sea-food and available as an important nutrient and dietary supplement. Iodine deficiency is a global health issue and has multiple adverse effects on growth and development, and is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation in the world. Chronic, severe iodine deficiency in utero causes cretinism, a condition characterized by mental retardation,  mutism, motor spasticity, stunted growth, delayed sexual maturation and other physical and neurological abnormalities and is also reported to be linked with Autism, cysts, certain Cancers along with hypo and hyper thyroidism, goiter etc. Various campaigns and awareness programs have been conducted to fight the Iodine deficiency. The Salt iodization programme in India dates back to late 50’s by Ramalingaswami and his team established Iodine deficiency as the causative factor for endemic goiter and consuming salt iodized with potassium iodate as the most economic and easiest means of its prevention and control in a population. This study encouraged by the Govt. of India also helped to launch National Goiter Control Programme (NGCP). A revolutionary BINDI is a simple patch or a DOT comprising of Iodine solution in adequate quantities that works to fight against and deliver the iodine at constant and controlled rate by subdermal route throughout the month. The bindi need to be worn everyday for up to eight hours to be effective and even by the pregnant women. It contains a solution of 150-200 µg of Iodine coated on the nicotine like patch. Ground-breaking technology of life saving DOT of Bindi might work in the safe and controlled delivery of Iodine for various Iodine deficiency disorders by reducing the problems of thyroid intake and improving patients’ compliance.

  7. Prescribing trends in the department of orthopedics of a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    Abishek Srihari , Dr. Shanmukananda P , Dr. Purushotham K
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (297-301)
    • No of Downloads: 1116

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    Background

    Drug utilization studies are necessary to monitor the prescriptions and promote rational drug prescribing among clinicians. Orthopedics department use a wide range of drugs from varied classes to meet the needs of their patients. This tends to result in drug interactions, adverse drug effects and prescription errors leading to increase in hospital cost and decrease in therapeutic compliance of the patients.

    Aim

    The present study was conducted to analyze the prescribing trends in the Department of Orthopedics of Dr. B R Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru.

    Methods

    A cross sectional prospective observational study was conducted over a period of three months. The prescriptions of patients attending orthopedics departments from both OPD and IPD were collected and analyzed.

    Results

    A total of 703 prescriptions having 2288 drugs were analyzed with number of drugs per prescription varying from 1 to 5 with average of 3.25. The commonest diagnosis in patients attending the orthopedics department was fractures (38%) followed by lumbago (30%), osteoarthritis (19%), dislocations (6%), bursitis (3%), and synovitis and neuropathies with 1% each. NSAIDS (49%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by antiulcerants (16%), antimicrobials (13%), opioid analgesics (12%), nutraceuticals like calcium and vitamin D3 supplements (4.8%), skeletal muscle relaxants (3.3%), followed by anti inflammatory enzymes and drugs for neuropathy at 1% each. 8% of drugs were prescribed by generics  and 35% of prescriptions had Fixed dose combination (FDC). 69% of drugs were from the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) India with approximately 20% of the formulations being injections. 

    Conclusion

    Lacunas like less numbers of prescriptions by generic drugs, polypharmacy and incomplete prescriptions were noted. Thus regular sensitization programmes regarding rational prescribing, and use of generics will help in promotion of rational prescribing among clinicians. 

  8. A Review of Ethanobotanical and Phytopharmacology of Ottelia alismoides (L.) PERS Download Article

    G.Sumithira, V.Kavya, A.Ashma, M.C.Kavinkumar
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (302-311)
    • No of Downloads: 54

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    The use of natural products as medicinal plants presumably predates the earliest recorded history. In the past 20 years public dissatisfaction with the cost prescription medications, combined with an interest in returning to natural or organic remedies, has led to an increase in herbal medicine use. Herbal medicine also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, barks and flowers for medicinal purposes. Ottelia alismoides is an traditional aquatic plant. The plant well below the surface of water usually anchored. Found both in stagnant and running water. It is used as medicinal plant for treating diseases like cancer, asthma, diabetes, tuberculosis, haemorrhoids, febrifuge, and rubifacient. Our present aim is to review all the work performed on the plant to get the clear idea to evaluate its various medicinal principles relating to ethanobotanical and phytopharmacological approaches.

  9. Prescribing pattern of antimicrobial agents in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media at a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Divya R, Shukrath C, Kavitha Rajarathna, Puttamadaiah G M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (312-318)
    • No of Downloads: 54

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    Background

    Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is a serious healthcare concern worldwide, especially in developing countries like India despite the advances in healthcare facilities. India’s prevalence of CSOM is 7.8% which is high and this may be related to frequent upper respiratory tract infections and poor socio-economic conditions. In general practice, the therapeutic approach for ENT infections is nearly empirical and the main aim of physicians is to treat as specifically as possible, while covering the most likely pathogens. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antimicrobials in CSOM patients in a tertiary care hospital. Materials & methods

    A prospective, observational study was conducted in the patients with CSOM attending ENT outpatient department from November 2014 to November 2015. All the data regarding patient’s demographics and details of antimicrobial agents were recorded in a predesigned study proforma. The data thus obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics.

    Results

    Out of 500 patients, the majority of the patients belonged to 21-30 years and had a male preponderance. Oral antibiotics were prescribed to 90.8 % of patients and the remaining 9.2% patients were given ototopical antimicrobials. Most common antimicrobials being Fluoroquinolones (64%) followed by Beta lactams (36%). Other concomitant drugs like analgesics, antihistamines, decongestants anti-ulcer agents and multivitamins were prescribed.

    Conclusion

    The study showed that the most common antimicrobial agents prescribed was fluoroquinolone group as they have antipseudomonal activity and lack ototoxicity. Beta lactams were preferred drugs over fluoroquinolones in children as the latter is associated with tendinitis and cartilage damage.

  10. Drug pricing of various formulations used for the management of acid peptic disorders Download Article

    SnehaJyothi A N, Divya R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (319-326)
    • No of Downloads: 50

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    Introduction

    Affordability determines accessibility to drugs in developing countries. Variation in the cost of drugs is noted to be high in India, which can affect drug compliance. Acid Peptic disorders are prevalent in India and require long term therapy. Hence the present study was undertaken to analyse the cost variation of various brands of anti-ulcer drugs currently available in India.

    Materials & methods

    The drugs listed under the section “Antacids and Anti-ulcer agents” in Current Index of Medical Specialties (CIMS) October 2016-January 2017 edition was noted to analyze the variation in drug prices of various brands of drugs available in India. Further analysis was done by using Percentage Cost Variation.

    Results

    Wide variation in the prices of Antacids and anti-ulcer agents was noted. Among the H2 (Histamine 2) receptor blockers, the maximum percentage of cost variation was noted with Ranitidine (50 mg injection) 871.54%, and among proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), it was noted with Pantoprazole (40 mg EC-Tab) 500.75%. Among the PPIs, lowest percentage of cost variation was noted with Omeprazole 40 mg injection; among the H2 blockers, it was Ranitidine 300mg FC-TAB.

    Among the Fixed Dose combinations (FDCs), maximum and minimum % of cost variation was noted with Ranitidine 150mg+Domperidone 10mg TAB (242%) and Pantoprazole 40mg+Domperidone 30mg SR-CAP (1%) respectively.

    Conclusion

    More than 100% cost variation was seen with different brands of all PPIs and H2 receptor blockers.

  11. Comparison of anti- inflammatory activity between conventional NSAIDS and ayurvedic preparations- Invitro method Download Article

    Sarvankumar.G, Dr. M.Vijay Gopal, Dr. Kiran Kumar.Y, Dr.P.Venkateswar rao, Dr. Ramesh Adepu
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (327-332)
    • No of Downloads: 41

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    Inflammation and pain are the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. A number of natural products are used in the traditional medical systems in many countries. An alternative medicine for the treatment of various diseases is getting more popular. Many medicinal plants provide relief of symptoms comparable to that of obtained from allopathic medicines. Therefore agents of natural origin with very little side effects are required as substitute chemicals therapeutics. The Ayurvedic preparations include Rheumartho and Rheumatil (150µg/ml, 300µg/ml, and 450µg/ml) was investigated for anti-inflammatory effects in Invitro Method. Human red blood cells membrane stabilization method and inhibition of albumin denaturation was adopted for the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The ayurvedic drugs were effective in inhibiting the heat induced haemolysis at different concentrations. The results showed that Rheumatil and Rheumartho at concentration 150 µg/ml, 300µg/ml protect significantly (P<0.01) the Erythrocyte membrane against lysis induced by heat. It was concluded that Ayurvedic preparations (Rheumartho and Rheumatil) possess anti-inflammatory with lesser side effects and more beneficial effects.

  12. Effect of melatonin on body weight, plasma lipid, leptin and insulin levels in high fat diet fed rats Download Article

    J Lalithaa Aparna, Satyajit Patil, S Ramamoorthy, Rohit Dixit
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (333-338)
    • No of Downloads: 42

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    Aims and Objectives
    To understand the influence of melatonin on body weight, plasma lipid, leptin and plasma insulin levels.
    Materials and Methods
    A total of 36 laboratory bred male Sprague dawley rats were used for the experiment. All the baseline parameters like body weight, lipid levels and plasma leptin and insulin levels were measured. The rats were fed with high fat diet starting from day 0 till 6 weeks. These rats were divided into two groups of 18 each. Group 1 (Control) received normal saline and Group 2 (Test) received 0.4mcg/ml of melatonin via oral gavage tube daily for six weeks. After six weeks, the parameters like Total body weight, lipid profile, plasma leptin and insulin levels were again observed. The statistical analysis of data was done using students‘t’ test, one way or two way ANOVA followed by post hoc bonferroni multiple comparison tests using SPSS. P value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant.
    Results
    The average weight gain in control group fed with fat rich diet was increased by 6% but the melatonin supplementation suppressed this increase to only 1.03%. Further, melatonin supplementation also suppressed the rise in total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol significantly (P<0.05). Melatonin administration not only suppressed the rise but also decreased the plasma leptin and insulin levels by 32% & 18.9% respectively after six weeks.
    Conclusion
    Daily supplementation of melatonin for six weeks in Sprague dawley rats fed with high fat diet suppresses the rise in body weight, plasma lipid levels and also decreases leptin and insulin levels significantly.

  13. Prescription pattern of diabetes mellitus with comorbid condition Download Article

    Padala Srikanth, D. Karthik Kumar, G. Narender Mallapuraju Rahul, Sama Tabassum, Dr. P. Sneha pharm. D
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (339-347)
    • No of Downloads: 48

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    Aim

    This study is aimed to assess the prescription pattern in DM patients with co morbid condition, because prescription pattern could lead to worsening of disease and increased risk of complications. The specific and general aspects of diabetic patients including the available dosage forms, to patients, drug interactions observed and common co morbities seen in diabetic patients, all add to difficulties facing by the practitioner who treats them. Due to the above reasons the study was designed to help minimize the prescription errors, render safe dosage regimen, by carefully monitoring the patients glyceminc control and other responses towards therapy, finally improving the quality of life.

    Methodology

    This is a prospective observational study conducted over a period of six months using questionnaires as a tool. The study was conducted at Nephrology ward of AWARE GLOBAL HOSPITAL LB. NAGAR. Patients who admitted to the general ward of the hospital during a six-month period from October 2016 to March 2017 are enrolled.

    Results

    Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 98 patients were selected from the inpatient department over a period of 6 months for the present study. Among 98 patients The gender distribution found in the following study was males (64%) and females (36%), the age distribution was found to be 25-35 yrs (4%),35-45yrs (12%),45-55 yrs (24%), 55-65yrs (35%), 65-75 yrs (17%) ,75-85 yrs (8%). Of the total 98 cases enrolled the co morbid conditions found were Hypertension (76%), hypothyroidism (16%) and chronic kidney disease (15%). A total of 464 drugs were prescribed during the study period. 102 (22%) antidiabetics, 72(15.5%) antihypertensives, 59(12.72%) multivitamins, 46 (9.9%) antiplatelets, 20(4.31%) statins and 165(35.5%) miscellaneous drugs were prescribed.

    Conclusion

    The final report drawn from a total of 98 cases with the primary condition “DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE -II” the major co-morbid condition found was HYPETENSION (76 cases) in the study population.

    The standard therapy which showed good control for the condition Diabetes + Hypertension given was:

    1. Ca+2 channel blockers (22.45% usage) eg. Amlodipine
    2. β-Blockers (15.31%) eg. Metoprolol
    3. Biguanides (43%) eg. Metformin
    4. Human Mixtard Insulin (25%)
  14. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of Limnophila heterophylla and Michelia champaca Download Article

    Raja S and Ravindranadh K
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (348-357)
    • No of Downloads: 51

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    In an attempt to mobilize indigenous healthcare knowledge, acute and sub chronic toxicity studies were performed on the methanol extracts of leaves of Limnophila heterophylla and Michelia champaca. In the acute toxicity study, a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg) of the methanol extracts of leaves of Limnophila heterophylla (MELH) and Michelia champaca (MEMC) was administered independently to rats and observed for 14 days meant for signs of acute toxicity. In sub chronic toxicity study, rats were administered with MELH & MEMC separately (250 and 500 mg/kg) daily for three months. Biochemical and haematological analysis were carried out on blood samples at the end of the treatment. The results showed that administration of 2000 mg/kg of MELH and MEMC to animals did not produce any mortality. In biochemical and haematological analysis, no significant differences between control and test animals was observed. The findings suggested that methanol extracts of Limnophila heterophylla and Michelia champaca were well tolerated both in acute and sub chronic toxicity studies.
  15. Pharmacovigilance - knowledge, attitude and practice among medical students in a teaching hospital of southern India Download Article

    Prasad S R, Santhosh Ramakrishna, Ravi H Kudthni, Narayana Swamy D M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (358-363)
    • No of Downloads: 51

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    Background

    Drugs although used in the prevention and curing of diseases, are sometimes associated with undesirable adverse drug reactions (ADR). Spontaneous reporting of ADRs has remained the cornerstone and major sources of information of pharmacovigilance and is important in maintaining patient safety. Underreporting of ADRs is a common problem and still remains a major obstacle in the complete success of Pharmacovigilance program.

    Aim of the study

    To assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of undergraduate medical students about pharmacovigilance.

    Material and Methods

    This was a cross sectional, observational, questionnaire based study conducted using a predesigned Knowledge Attitude Practice (KAP) questionnaire among 136 medical students. The completed KAP questionnaire was collected and data analyzed.

    Results

    Most of the students (97.06%) accepted that reporting ADR is necessary and 56.92% of them for identifying safety of the drug. 85.29% agreed that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to health-care professionals. But there was a huge gap between the ADR experienced (36.4 %), and ADR reported (5.88%) by the students. Only 64.71% students have ever seen the ADR reporting form.

    Conclusion

    Majority of the students had a good knowledge but reasonable attitude and poor practice of pharmacovigilance. There is need for continuous education regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting system among the students who will be the future health-care givers.

  16. Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma Download Article

    Dr. Shantala R Naik, Dr Ashok L, Dr Prashant Gupta
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (364-373)
    • No of Downloads: 38

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    Background

    Changes in the lipid profile has been reported to be associated with oral cancer and also in cases of oral premalignant lesions and conditions. This study was done to assess the relationship between plasma lipid profile and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral leukoplakia (OL). OL is a potentially malignant lesion which could transform into malignancy hence this study evaluates the correlation of cholesterol levels and leukoplakia and also the tobacco abusers.

    Aims

    to assess the serum lipid levels in OL and OSCC and to look for any relation between incidence of OL and OSCC and lipid profile levels

    Settings and design

    This study included a total of 126 subjects of which 30 had OL and 30 had OSCC  and 66 were age and sex matched controls.

    Materials and methods

    Analysis of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TGL) levels were done using the standard reagents from erba diagnostics, Daman.

    Statistical analysis used

    SPSS package 14th version and ANOVA was used for multiple group comparison followed by students T test for pair wise comparison.

    Results

    Plasma levels of HDL, VLDL, TGL and ratio of HDL and LDL was significantly reduced in patients with OSCC and OL. Plasma TC and LDL was significantly reduced in patients with speckled leukoplakia when compared with the rest of the types. 

    Conclusions

    There was a inverse relationship between lipid profile and OSCC and OL.  

  17. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of shilajit in alloxan induced diabetic rats Download Article

    Ravi H Kudthni, Prasad S R, Basavanna P L
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (374-380)
    • No of Downloads: 36

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    Background

    Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide. This disease constitutes a major health concern affecting about 2.8% of the global population. Currently available synthetic antidiabetic agents produce serious side effects. This leads to a demand for herbal products with antidiabetic activity and fewer side effects. Hence shilajit a herbo-mineral substance with a wide spectrum of biological activity is being evaluated for its anti diabetic activity.

    Aim of the study

    To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of shilajit in alloxan induced diabetic rat model and to compare hypoglycaemic activity of shilajit with standard drug, glibenclamide.

    Materials and Methods

    Alloxan induced (150mg/kg.i.p) diabetic rats were divided into six groups of six animals each weighing 150-200 gms. Group I - Diabetic control: Normal saline. Group II - Standard: Normal saline + Glibenclamide (5mg/kg). Group III – Normal saline + Shilajit dose D1 50mg/kg, Group IV- Normal saline + Shilajit dose D2 100mg/kg, Group V- Normal saline + Shilajit dose D3 150mg/kg, Group VI- Normal saline + Shilajit dose D2 100mg/kg+ Glibenclamide (5mg/kg). All drugs are given once daily orally for 21 days and fasting blood glucose was estimated from blood taken from rat tail vein using glucometer on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st days.

    Results

    Shilajit by itself has significant hypoglycemic effect. Its hypoglycemic effect is comparable to glibenclamide when used in doses 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, but when used in dose of 150mg/dl it showed lesser effect. Shilajit when combined with glibenclamide showed potentiated hypoglycemic effect.

    Conclusions

    The result in this study suggests that shilajit can be used as monotherapy in doses 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and complementary medicine with glibenclamide for diabetes mellitus.

  18. Cost variation analysis of various brands of oral hypolipidemic drugs available in Indian pharmaceutical market Download Article

    Mamatha K.R, Vishnu K
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (381-388)
    • No of Downloads: 34

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    Introduction

    Dyslipidemia is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide requiring lifelong therapy. Hence cost of drugs plays an important role in patient’s care necessitating the need for all physicians to keep themselves updated regarding latest prices and price variation of various brands of hypolipidemic drugs.

    Materials and Methods

    Cost of oral hypolipidemic drugs manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from “Current Index of Medical Specialties” (CIMS) April- July 2017. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and percentage variation in cost per 10 tablets was calculated.

    Results

    In this study, there exists a wide cost variation among the different brands of same hypolipidemic drug. Percentage cost variation for individual hypolipidemic drugs was found to be highest with atorvastatin (20 mg FC-tablet): 1017.79% followed by rosuvastatin (20mg tablet): 308.16%, gemfibrozil (300mg capsule): 109.14%, lovastatin (20mg tablet): 87.83%, fenofibrate (200mg capsule): 79.53%, simvastatin (5mg tablet): 77.43%, ezetimibe (10mg tablet): 72.84%. Among the fixed dose combination therapy, percentage cost variation was found to be highest with atorvastatin + fenofibrate (10mg + 160mg FC-tablet): 266.67% followed by atorvastatin +ezetimibe (10mg + 10mg tablet): 139.39%, rosuvastatin + fenofibrate (10mg + 160mg tablet): 81.05%

    Conclusion

    In Indian market, there exists a wide cost variation amongst various brands of oral hypolipidemic drugs of same strength and dosage forms. Therefore, physicians should be encouraged to prescribe the drugs by generic names as they are cheaper and in no way inferior to costlier branded counterpart. This in turn reduces the economic burden on the patients.

    Keywords:Cost analysis, Cost variation, Hypolipidemic drugs