Articles

  1. ISOLATION OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT (MDR) BACTERIA & HEMODYNAMIC STABILITY ON THE DAY OF STARTING OF ANTIBIOTICS Download Article

    Depanwita Saha, Arpita Bhakta, Sharmily Chakraborty, Tapan Kumar Chatterjee
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-10)
    • No of Downloads: 155

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    There is a generalized assumption among clinicians that the hemodynamically unstable patients are mostly infected with the multidrug resistant organisms compared to the hemodynamically stable patients, and that is why the patients who are considered to be hemodynamically less stable, are empirically prescribed with the broad spectrum antibiotics. This hypothesis has not been supported by any valid evidence yet .So the aim of our study was to find the association of the hemodynamic status of patients with the drug resistance pattern of organisms and the prescribing pattern of antibiotics. In the present study it has been found that the MDR organisms were isolated more frequently from hemodynamically unstable patients compared to the stable patients (70% Vs 63.25%). However the difference is not statistically significant. Interestingly in case of bacteremia, significantly higher no. (p=0.001) of hemodynamically unstable patients have been infected with MDR organisms. Moreover another significant finding of the study is that the hemodynamically unstable patients have been mostly prescribed with broad spectrum antibiotics like Colistin (p=0.031) and combination of multiple groups of antibiotics (p=0.004) than the stable ones. So the study may provide an important indication for the correlation of hemodynamic stability with multidrug resistance and antibiotic prescription pattern.

  2. Phytochemical screening of Desmostachya bipinnata, Canthium dicoccum Sebestiania chaemelea Download Article

    Juturu Mastanaiah, Dr. Milind Pande
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (11-15)
    • No of Downloads: 101

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    Plants contain various phytochemical constituents i.e. primary and secondary metabolites. Various secondary metabolites have proved their therapeutic activities due to their medicinal properties. So phytochemical screening of active principles present in medicinal plants is primary and valuable step of drug discovery. In present study 3 medicinal plants selected of different families were selected for screening of bioactive principles. Screening of 3 selected medicinal plants was performed to identify the presence of tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids etc using standard methods. All the selected medicinal plants were found to contain alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins. Triterpenoids present in Sebestiania chaemelea but absent in Desmostachya bipinnata, Canthium dicoccum. Saponins present in Desmostachya bipinnata, Canthium dicoccum but absent in Sebestiania chaemelea. Whereas proteins, steroids were absent in all the selected three plants. It is evident from study that all the three medicinal plants have similar efficacy due to presence of similar phytochemical constituents present in all three medicinal plants.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving film of meloxicam Download Article

    Fawziya W. Alhalabi, Gehan F. Balata, Nahla S. Barakat, Alaa F. Alsulami, Athba K. Al-Solbi, Bashair M Shoieb, Haifa A. Alotaibi, Sarah A. Al-Ansari
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-27)
    • No of Downloads: 103

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    Fast dissolving dosage forms have acquired great importance in pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize fast dissolving film containing meloxicam (MLX) for oral use. In this study,  as an approach to improve the solubility of MLX, solid dispersions (SD) of MLX were prepared by melting and solvent evaporation methods using Poloxamer 188 and Gelucire 44/14 alone as carrier and combination of both. The physicochemical characterizations were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for MLX-loaded SD and their corresponding physical mixtures as well as the individual components to investigate the drug polymer interaction. The solubility was enhanced 5-8 folds using the solid dispersion technique (F1, F4 and F9). All the prepared formulations showed about 65-100% MLX release after 60 min compared to a maximum of 23% release from the pure MLX sample. The obtained DSC and XRD results indicated that MLX was molecularly dispersed in the matrix of SD. Then, the promising formula (F9) that contained (15:42.5:42.5, drug: poloxamer: Gelucire, w/w) and prepared by melting was further incorporated into fast dissolving film (FDF) formulations. Films were prepared by solvent casting method using different quantity of film former HPMC E6. The prepared films were found to contain almost a uniform quantity of the drug. Film 2 (contained 400 mg polymer) showed the best property concerning drug release, fast disintegration time (46.3sec), mechanical strength and surface pH. 

  4. The third world war: man versus drug resistant virus and bacteria. Download Article

    Aritra Bhattacharyya, Sharmily Chakraborty, Tapan Kumar Chatterjee
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (28-37)
    • No of Downloads: 93

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    Unlimited commercial production of antibiotics and their ever increasing use in our day to day life has led to the evolution of a class of organism known as multi-drug resistance organisms (MDRO). Multi drug resistance (MDR) is a condition in which a particular disease causing microorganism (virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites) becomes resistant to antimicrobials (antivirals, antibiotics or antimicrobics). The present Chapter will focus on the cause and mechanism of MDR in bacteria and their prevention, if any, such as combination antibiotic therapy. These bacteria range from urgent threat level such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae to serious threat level such as Streptococcus pneumonia and also includes microorganism with a concerning threat level such as Group A Streptococcus. The discussion also includes MDR in viruses (such as Hepatitis B) and their prevention, if any.

  5. Triphala an innovative medicine of the centuries Download Article

    Dr. Shashwati Choube, Dr. Rahul R. Bhowate
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (38-44)
    • No of Downloads: 78

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    TRIPHALA had been described from the Era of Charak and Sushruta as a medicine with multiple properties. The drug Triphala is a combination of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz, Terminalia bellirica Roxb and Emblica officinalis Gaertn in equal amounts in fine powder form. Constituents are one fruit of Terminalia chebula, two fruits of Terminalia bellirica and four fruits  Emblica officinalis are used for the preparation of medicine, It shows all three properties of Vatta, Pitta and Khapha .Triphala is considered a ‘Tridoshic Rasayan’ .With multiple properties such as Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, Antihperlipidemic, Antianalgesic, Antimutagenic (Prevents spindle cell formation), Immunomodulatory, Radioprotective, Wound healing, Hepatoprotective, Antibacterial, Antitumor, Antiproliferative. Terminalia Chebula a content of Triphala contains gallic acid, chebulinic acid which inhibits the growth of human cancer cell lines. Selenium present in Triphala as Glutathione peroxidase inhibits the replication of tumor virus and prevents malignant transformation of cells. Triphala promotes Appetite, increases Red blood cells, Haemoglobin. It is a tonic cleanser and Blood purifier and rich in Magnesium, Calcium, Selenium, Potassium, Iron and Zinc. Always a precancerous condition and its progression must be checked before the patient goes into the agony of cancer. Ayurvedic treatments, use of TRIPHALA could be an effective remedy “TRIPHALA” –AN INNOVATIVE MEDICINE OF THE CENTURY

  6. A review on ethanobotanical uses and pharmacology of plecospermum spinosum Download Article

    G.Sumithira, A.Ashma, H.Rajamathanky, V.Kavya, K.Muhammed Riyas
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (45-49)
    • No of Downloads: 131

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    The association of humans and animals with plants obviously originated with the beginning of life on earth, when plants supplied much of the shelter, oxygen, food and medicine needed by higher life forms. Overtime and with the beginning of societies, human learned to recognize and categorize plant materials suited for use in meeting the necessities of life. The use of herbs and herbal extracts for their healing powers can be traced to earliest of myths, traditions and writings used to codify those plants that can ease pain and treat diseases. India, being the treasure-house of biodiversity with its diverse ecological conditions, rich ethnic diversity and a strong traditional knowledge base, accounts for 45,000 plant species, out of which more than 8,000 species are used in some 10,000 herbal drug formulations. As per the WHO, 80% population in developing countries relies on traditional natural medicines, and almost 80% of the traditional medicines involve the use of plant extracts. Plecospermum Spinosum Trec., is one of the traditional plant grown in India as it have several phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities it is used as medicinal plant for treating disease like myocardial infarction, diabetes, cancer, cholera, cold, jaundice and tooth ache etc. Ethnobotanical survey has also reported that this plant is used for general uses. This review discusses the investigation made by various workers related to its medicinal uses, chemical constituents, and its pharmacological activities.

  7. Case report on klatskin tumor Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao, Dr. K V Subrahmanyam, Dr. Sandhya Rani, Dr. Shazia Yousuf
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (50-52)
    • No of Downloads: 62

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    Klatskin Tumor also known as Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer that affect Bilary tree predominantly at the bifurcation of the common hepatic duct. Of all diagnosed cancers, Cholangiocarcinoma accounts for approximately 2% with an overall incidence of 1.2 per 100,000 individuals. The etiology of cholangiocarcinoma is undefined although Primary sclerosing cholangitis has been clearly associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in up to 40% of patients. A 45 year old male patient presented to surgical OPD with complaints of severe pain in abdomen, vomitings and pruritis with severe jaundice. The Past Medical History indicates that the patient had high grade intermittent fever,Watery diarrhoea 4-5 episodes /day since two days. His personal history revealed of decreased appetite since one month and yellowing discolouration of eyes and trunk since one month. The Condition was evaluated using specific Diagnostic procedures like computed Tomography and Ultrasonography of Abdomen, Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and laboratory findings like LFT which confirmed for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma. The patient started Dr.Appa Raos treatment on the day of his visit and used medication for one month. A remarkable improvement was noted with Dr.Appa Raos treatment and the patient turned well.

  8. A case report on management of sero negative spondyloarthropathy Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao, Dr. K V Subrahmanyam, Dr. Sandhya Rani, Dr. Smitha Madhuri
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-56)
    • No of Downloads: 63

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    Spondyloarthropathies are a family of long-term (chronic) diseases of joints. These diseases occur in children (juvenile spondyloarthropathies) and adults. They include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and joint problems linked to inflammatory bowel disease (enteropathic arthritis). Spondyloarthropathies are sometimes called spondyloarthritis.

    Although all spondyloarthropathies have different symptoms and outcomes, they are similar in that all of them usually involve the attachments between your low back and the pelvis (sacroiliac joint) and affect areas around the joint where your ligaments and tendons attach to bone (enthesitis), such as at the knee, foot, or hip [4].

    We report one such rare presentation of sero negative spondyloarthropathy  in a 44 years old man  with a history of  polyarthritis involving ankles, knees, wrist, MTP joint since 6 months, Joint swelling with early morning stiffness since 3 months, pain at back and sacral region since 1 month and diagnosed with Psoriatic Spondyloarthritis (PSA) + Reactive arthritis and  other co morbid conditions like psoriasis, T2DM, Hepatitis A, Kochs TB was treated by Dr. Appa Rao with the protocol involving immunonutritive therapy.

  9. A case report on management of medulloblastoma Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao, Dr. K V Subrahmanyam, Dr. Sandhya Rani, Dr. Rathna Sree D
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (57-60)
    • No of Downloads: 67

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    Medulloblastoma is the most common cancerous brain tumor in children, accounting for nearly 1 in 5 of all pediatric brain tumors. It almost always starts in the lower back part of the brain called the cerebellum, and tends to spread through spinal fluid .Treatment for medulloblastoma usually consists of a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. About three-fourths of children with medulloblastoma treated with this combined approach survive into adulthood. Survival depends on many factors, including age of diagnosis as well as the size, type, location and growth rate of the tumor. Therapies for medulloblastoma may cause delayed complications that can affect quality of life after treatment.

    We report one such rare presentation of medulloblastoma, Mr. 41 years old man with a history of giddiness-June2012 and, He was taking treatment, but for persistence of symptoms he was again adviced MRI brain in Aug 2013 which showed – ill defined hyperintensities in superior cerebellar hemispheres B/L, vermis and middle cerebellar peduncles.MRI spine in Aug 2013 showed degenerative changes in cervical vertebra with indentation of cord in C5 – C6, C6 – C7 levels. CSF analysis was negative for malignant cells. He was furter evaluated – right suboccipital craniotomy and biopsy was done on 2 Nov2013. Biopsy report was in favors of small cell carcinoma. Biopsy material was sent for second opinion to NIMHANS, Bangalore on 27 Nov 2013. Final diagnosis of medduloblastoma. WHO grade IV; cerebellum. He received radiation therapy for 45 days from 16 Dec 2013 to 28 Jan 2014. He was notable to tolerate radiation, then adviced for chemotherapy. At this point the patient was started on immunonutritive therapy in april 2014 by Dr.Appa Rao. He improved so well in just 3 months and his later reports of MRI done on 20 Dec 2014 was completely normal.

  10. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae): A Multipurpose Ornamental Plant Download Article

    Sunita Verma
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (61-64)
    • No of Downloads: 147

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    Hibiscus rosasinensis is a perennial ornamental woody plant, belong to Malvaceae family available throughout India. Various parts of this plant like roots, leaves and flowers have been known to possess medicinal properties like anti inflammatery, antifungal, oral contraceptive, laxative, aphrodisiac, menorrhagic etc. The present paper is an attempt to provide a detailed botanical description, classification, phytochemical study of the plant.

  11. Formulation and Characterization of Aspirin loaded modified release Microsponges by statistical design Download Article

    Priya Patel, Neha Vadgama, Mihir Raval
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (65-80)
    • No of Downloads: 83

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    Aspirin loaded microsponge can be used to deliver particles to the intestinal region for reducing the side effects and give sustained release effect. Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to prepare Aspirin loaded microsponge by using Eudragit RS100 as polymer, polyvinyl alcohol as emulsifier, Triethyl citrate as plasticizer, Dichloromethane and methanol as solvent. Optimization of formulation was done by Central Composite design with 15 runs. 3-D surface response plots and contour plots were drawn and optimized formulation was selected by check point batch. Evaluation of formulation were done by Particle size, loading efficiency, production yield, drug content, %CDR at 1 hr, t50%, t90% along with scanning electron microscopy, Residual solvent study, DSC, FTIR also characterized. Spray coating was done by using coater with nozzle spray. Mechanically strong tablets were obtained owing to the plastic deformation of sponge-like structure of microsponges confirmed by resillency test. All the factors studied had an influence on the physical characteristics of the microsponges. In-vitro dissolution studies were done on all formulations and the results were kinetically evaluated and the release rate of aspirin was found to be modified. This study presents a new approach based on microsponge drug delivery system, drug release in sustained manner with reducing the side effect.

  12. To Study the Pharmacological Effect and Beneficial Effect of Eucalyptus Globulus in Different types of Diseases Download Article

    Priyanka Sonker, Smita Verma, Polly Gupta
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (81-88)
    • No of Downloads: 149

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    The plant Eucalyptus globulus, On the basis of study conducted on, it was found that Eucalyptus has storage of active constituent present in its parts; traditionally it is necessary to explore its importance as an excellent nerving herb. The review describes several pharmacological activities. The main constituent such as ‘eucalyptol’ are responsible for biological activities which include the local anaesthetic, antispasmodic, musculorelaxant, antimycotic, sedative, anticonvulsive, analgesic and neuroprotective effects etc. which proves it has potent psychoactive ability. This review confirms the therapeutic and biological value of this plant. The results of the studies shows that this plants are important for uses of human and animal disease therapy. The main chemical constituent (1-8 cineole) are responsible for various activities. This constituent is present in its leaves oil, it is also known as eucalyptol. Essential oils are common group of natural product present in aromatic medicinal plants. Essential oils and other extract of plants are of interest as source of natural product [1].

  13. A case report on management of coronary artery disease Download Article

    Dr.Peddapalli Appa Rao Dr. K V Subrahmanyam Dr. P.Sandhya Rani Dr. Smitha Madhuri
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (89-92)
    • No of Downloads: 64

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    During the past decade, major improvements in the management of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) patients have reduced AMI-related mortality by 50% in developed countries. Specifically, the introduction of intensive care units in the 1960s, improvement in pharmacologic reperfusion in the 1980s, and the widespread availability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the 1990s have markedly reduced in-hospital mortality from AMI over the past 15 years [5]. Furthermore, the near-universal acceptance and prompt application of antiplatelet agents, β-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and statins after an AMI have contributed to the improvement in long-term survival among AMI patients. Still, these great strides cannot diminish the impact of MI. First, the number of at-risk patients (e.g., genetic predisposition, smoking, poor dietary habits, or physical inactivity) is enormous and continues to increase, especially the population of diabetics, elderly patients, and other individuals with metabolic syndrome [5, 6].

    One such case with high risk and in need of Coronary Bypass Grafting (CABG) has been treated by Dr. Appa Rao’s Immunonutritive therapy and the result was beneficial to the patient. Patient was followed for a year and was found to be healthy.

  14. Design formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of stavudine Download Article

    Mourya Adarsh, Mrs.P. Haritha Sunil, Praveen Kanna, Sampath.M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (93-103)
    • No of Downloads: 62

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    The purpose of the present research work was to design, formulate and evaluate the floating tablets of Stavudine, a gastro retentive drug delivery system. Direct compression was used to prepare the tablets using HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and Carbopol 974(p) as polymers. Formulations were prepared by varying the amount of polymers. The compatibility of drug with the polymers is identified by using FTIR studies. Gastric floating of Stavudine tablets results from effervescence produced by the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid in stomach. Twelve formulations of floating tablets were prepared using direct compression technique with polymer such as carbopol974 (p), HPMC grades, Xanthium gum, Guar gum, chitosan in different ratios. The evaluation results revealed that all formulations comply with the specification of official pharmacopoeias and/or standard reference with respect to general appearance, content uniformity, hardness, friability and buoyancy.  Out of all the formulation developed, formulation F8 containing of Carbopol showed in vitro drug release of 97.8% up to desired time period of i.e., 24 hours.  Thus it is summarized; carbopol grades can be used in formulation of gastro retentive floating drug delivery system. The compatibility of drug with polymers is identified by FT-IR studies. The results obtained showed that the drug is compatible with all the polymers used. The prepared tablets (F1-F12) were evaluated for both pre-compression and post-compression parameters. The results obtained showed that the drug is compatible with all the polymers used.