Articles

  1. A study on appropriateness and cost comparison of prescription of proton pump inhibitors at a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Shivashankar Velu, Pheba Susan Thomas
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (286-290)
    • No of Downloads: 138

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    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently used in patients who do not meet the criteria for appropriate use. Reducing inappropriate prescribing of PPIs in the inpatient and outpatient settings can minimize potential for adverse events, and can also help in controlling cost expenditure. The objective of the study is to determine the appropriateness and compare the cost of prescriptions of PPIs. A prospective observational study was conducted at a 750 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital in Coimbatore. The data were collected during regular ward rounds.  The appropriateness was analyzed using the FDA guidelines. A total of 209 patients was included in the study as per the inclusion criteria. In the study population pantoprazole was the most frequently prescribed in 144 (68.89%) patients, followed by esomeprazole in 46 (22.01%) patients, rabeprazole in 17 (8.13%) patients and omeprazole in 2 (0.95%) patients. Out of 209 patients 115 (55.02%) prescriptions were found to be appropriate and 94 (44.98%) prescriptions were found to be inappropriate as per the guidelines. The majority of the inappropriate prescriptions contained pantoprazole followed by esomeprazole and rabeprazole. The cost of treatment can be reduced in 94 patients who have been prescribed with PPIs inappropriately. The results revealed that interventions made by the pharmacist avoided the inappropriate use of PPI at the study site. Most of the inappropriate prescriptions were consisting increased frequency of dosing and utilizing PPIs for prophylactic use. The need for PPI use in the individual patient must be evaluated by the pharmacist and if any possible alternatives are found to be effective the same can be reported to the physician. The regular monitoring of prescription of PPI by clinical pharmacist is the need of the hour.

  2. A review article – development of forced degradation and stability indicating studies for drug substance and drug product Download Article

    Mrs. Khushbu A. Thakor, Dhara D. Bhavsar, Jagruti R. Thakor
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (291-297)
    • No of Downloads: 170

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    The objective of the review article is to give detailed description and guidance of the forced degradation studies as per regulatory guidelines. Forced degradation study provide information about the degradation pathways and degradation products of the drug substance and helps in the elucidation of the structure of the degradation products. forced degradation study provide the chemical behaviour and chemical nature of the molecule which ultimately helps in the development of formulation during manufacturing and packaging specification, thus this review article provide knowledge of the current trends in performance of forced degradation study and establishing the analytical methods that helpful for development of stability indicating method. The stability of drug product and or drug substance is a critical parameter which may affect purity, potency and safety.

  3. Antiulcerogenic Activity on Aqueous Crude Extract of Emblica Officinalis Gaerth in Pylorus Ligated (Shay) Rats Download Article

    Muthukumar. A, G.Nagaraja Perumal, S.Mohan, R.Sundharaganapathy D.Ranjith Kumar and Prakash.G
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (298-305)
    • No of Downloads: 139

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    The complex and multifactorial pathogenesis of peptic ulcer has been studied over several decades, and results from an imbalance of aggressive gastric luminal factors acid and pepsin and defensive mucosal barrier function. Several environmental and host factors contribute to ulcer formation by increasing gastric acid secretion or weakening the mucosal barrier. Among environmental factors, smoking, excessive alcohol use, and drug use are most often quoted but none of them, apart from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use, were identified as an individual ulcerogenic agent. Emotional stress and psychosocial factors are frequently identified as important contributors to ulcer pathogenesis. Although stress cannot be neglected as a contributing factor, convincing evidence for it being the sole cause of duodenal ulcer is scarce. Aim of the present study is to evaluate the antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) on Pylorus ligated (Shay) rats model for ulcer. Additionally the muco protective effect also studied by aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rats as the aqueous ethanolic extract reported as muco protective.

  4. FLORALITE Capsules: cancer supportive therapy for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID) Download Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, D.Sruthi Rao, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (306-310)
    • No of Downloads: 116

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    Diarrhea is a common side effect of chemotherapy regimens. Diarrhea can cause depletion of fluids and electrolytes, malnutrition, and dehydration. Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID) can occur in as many as 50-80 percent of patients receiving chemotherapy. Probiotics have been shown effective at preventing diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease and may prove useful in the oncology setting, Clinical research indicates that probiotics promote a healthy balance of intestinal flora and has immunomodulatory effects in cancer patients and may help minimize some of the negative gastrointestinal side effects associated with treatment. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of Floralite capsules in promoting immune function & As supportive therapy for chemotherapy induced diarrhea.

  5. Clinical pharmacists’ role in identification of drug related problems in a teritiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    A.Sireesha, R.N.S Vasuki, S.Nithila
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (311-317)
    • No of Downloads: 117

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    Objective

    To evaluate the drug related problems in which it occurs mostly in both IP and OP. To examine the nature, frequency and to estimate the risks associated with drug related problems in a General Medicine Department.

    Methodology

    A prospective observational study was carried out at a 750 bedded teaching hospital for a period of 6 months. Patients were enrolled on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criterion involves patients in multiple drug therapy with a minimum of two drugs and patients of both sexes.

    Results

    A total of 508 cases were collected during the study period. Among them 165 cases due to the infectious diseases. The most common DRP is possible drug-drug interaction in part of patients i.e.219.Based on severity level, moderate drug-drug interactions were found to be maximum (48.8%) followed by minor (28.4%) and major 22.8%. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the second major DRP found in 34 cases. Poly pharmacy is found to be the most important cause of DRPs followed by in appropriate drug choices, poor medication adherence risk. Statistical analysis was performed using spearman’s correlation test and it was found a significant difference (P=0.0001) between the drug related problems of inpatient and outpatient department.

    Conclusion

    Clinical pharmacist as a member of the health care team can contribute significantly to the improved patient outcomes by monitoring drug therapy and can also promote rational use of drugs.

  6. Formulation development and evaluation of herbal lozenges for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis Download Article

    Kesha Desai , Mitesh Kataria, Dr. Ankur Talavia, Dr. Ramesh K. Goyal
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (318-325)
    • No of Downloads: 328

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    The currently available locally acting formulations to treat recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) are either less efficacious or they are not comfortable for the use in the patients. Lozenges are one of the locally acting palatable oral formulations that may be used for the treatment of RAS. The aim of the present research work was to formulate locally acting efficacious herbal lozenges for the treatment of RAS which can provide a good patient compliance. As the part of preformulation study, estimation of secondary plant metabolites (Total phenolics and flavanoids) and compatibility study was carried out to formulate lozenges by moulding method. Trial batches were prepared for the optimization of bases (Isomalt, Liquid glucose and Honey) to formulate lozenges. The evaluation tests i.e. moulding time, hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro drug release were carried out for the optimization of the batch. Evaluation of batches LC-LOZ 1 to LC-LOZ 9 was carried out. The diameter, thickness and hardness of lozenges were found to be 14.87±0.077mm, 7.15±0.005mm and147±0.16 N respectively. The weight uniformity was found to be 1.1±0.11 gm. The friability of lozenges was found to be less than 1% .The weight variation of all the formulations was found to be close to 1 gm which complied with the official standards. In clinical study the patients were divided into two groups and the number and size of ulcers were measured at baseline. After the treatment, follow up was taken after 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. LC-LOZ was found to be more effective than Alarsin, a routinely used marketed formulation.

  7. A new looming of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV Download Article

    Mehta Shachi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (326-331)
    • No of Downloads: 106

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    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus is the species of genus Beta Coronavirus. A novel human coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA. They are distinct from SARS and common cold viruses. First case of MERS-CoV was reported in Saudi Arabia in April 2012, in patients with severe Pneumonia. MERS-CoV has mild to non-specific symptoms which includes Headache, vomiting, High fever, cough, etc. MERS-CoV has been reported under high mortality rate. It is diagnosed through PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and virus isolation from respiratory tracts and blood samples. No Antiviral agents or vaccines are available for this disease.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperazine derivatives as anthelmintic agents Download Article

    Jagruti Thakor and Mrs.Vaishali V. Karkhanis
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (332-341)
    • No of Downloads: 110

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    The purpose of this study is based upon synthesis of a series of 1,4-disubstituted piperazine derivatives through two step reaction. This protocol involves the formation of various acid chlorides (3a-3j) through reaction of substituted acid with thionyl chloride in the presence of a drop of dimethyl formamide as a catalyst. The second step involves the reaction of compounds (3a-3j) with methyl piperazine, affording target compounds (5a-5j).The structures of target compounds were elucidated from the data of the different spectral methods of analysis. In addition, a mass spectrum, for a representative example, was carried out where the expected fragmentation pattern is in accordance with the structure of the proposed compound. The anthelmintic activity of the synthesized derivatives (5a-5j) was investigated in vitro against Eisenia fetida. All the investigational compounds (5a-5j) exhibited promising anthelmintic activity at minimal dose of 5mg/ml in comparison with reference drug Piperazine citrate.

  9. A study on SNCU performance indicators for effective implementation of total quality management system Download Article

    Dr.V.Rambabunaik, Dr.B.S.Rajiv
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (342-347)
    • No of Downloads: 85

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    The total quality management system is committed mostly in order to attain high standards of work output in various fields. By applications of this technique in a sick neonatal care unit, it will be beneficial. Generally, various SNCU indicators were used for the effective implementation of a total quality management system. Actually main goal of this is for, an organization should establish, maintain certain documentation and implement them along with the maintenance which suits for an international standards which can be found by various data presentation and analysis technique to be calculated by using some of the formula for an analysis of trend in system and also alterations to do for them. General observations are done at in hospital SNCU, some considerations need to be done for this study, analyzed data of performance of indicators which were analyzed over a period of 6 months and discussions of various performance indicators are to be noted .if any problems were detected in TQM that can de be altered by taking some suggestions, by doing so standards can be attained.  

  10. A study on installation of solar power energy at CHC, Shadnagar, AH Nagarkurnool and District Hospital, Mahabubnagar with reference to break even analysis - comparative study Download Article

    Dr.V.Rambabunaik, Dr. B.S.Rajiv
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (348-352)
    • No of Downloads: 79

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    Solar energy is a source of energy from sun, conversation of this energy is very beneficial to human. It can be converted into electrical or some other ways. Solar panels are a specially designed panel which absorbs solar energy that converts into electrical energy and that can be used in various ways .Study on installation of solar power energy at the hospitals will be useful and by differentiating the normal source of electricity usage with that of the solar energy and some other electricity sources it can be judged by considering the various parameters like, power conception bills of various hospitals that are under consideration, A break even analysis is a kind of  technical study and giving a rough idea on the relationship cost volume and profit  which is a best way for planning and financial reporting hence this analysis gives an cost of comparison and some of the limitations. By such kind of studies it will be better for patient care, reduce cost of expenditure in maintenance of hospitals. 

  11. Sub tenons anesthesia VIS a VIS peribulbar anesthesia for small incision cataract surgery: a teaching hospital based study Download Article

    Padmavathi CG, Sivasankar Naik B
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (353-360)
    • No of Downloads: 22

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    Cataract is a major causative factor for blindness in India. Cataract extraction is commonest surgery performed both in India and abroad and one of the key procedures for preventable blindness. The popular small incision cataract surgery done for cataract extraction all over the globe for which peribulbar and sub tenons anesthesia are commonly used anaesthetic procedures. The present study is carried out at department of ophthalmology, Government Medical College Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh with an objective to compare the efficacies of two commonly used techniques of anesthesia and also to assess the complications arising out of it. The study indicated that sub tenons form of anesthesia is comparatively superior over its counter part in terms of analgesia, akinesia and intraocular pressures.