Articles

  1. In-vitro anti-tuberculosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant screening for certain synthesized N-Phenyl-3-Phenyl-5-Substituted Phenyl Pyrazoline and 4-Phenyl-6-Substituted phenyl-3, 4-Dihydro Pyrimidine-2-one analogues Download Article

    Dr. S.Selvakumar, Dr. R.Nallathambi, L.Matsyagiri, P.Prapulla, Afreen, P.Pranathi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (199-208)
    • No of Downloads: 154

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    One series of N-phenyl pyrazoline analogues (K1-K5) were synthesized by reaction of substituted chalcones (C1-5) with phenyl hydrazine in acidic medium. The second series of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidine-2-one analogues (K6-K10) were synthesized by reaction of substituted chalcones (C1-5) with ethanolic urea in alkali medium. These substituted chalcones (C1-5) was prepared by reaction of acetophenone (a) and aromatic aldehydes (b1-5). The yield of the synthesized analogues ranged from 62-76%. The in-vitro anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tuberculosis screenings was performed. The result of all heterocyclic analogues (K1-K10) indicates that have significant in-vitro anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activity when compared to standard drugs. Among those analogues K1, K3, K6 & K8 were showed potent and analogues K2 & K7 were registered comparably good anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The analogue K3 only exhibited potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The analogues K1 and K6 exhibited moderate in-vitro anti-tuberculosis activity.

  2. Prediction of target enzyme for diabetes mellitus by isolated blood samples Download Article

    G. Nagaraja Perumal and S.Mohan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (209-214)
    • No of Downloads: 102

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    Diabetes Mellitus is a serious problem universally, by and large in both developing as well as underdeveloped nations. Conversely, a synthetic drug management of diabetes mellitus creates an unexpected adverse effect towards all organs and it is not safeguarding too. However, numerous enzymes, which is a real concern and may be accountable for diabetes mellitus and its associated complications, which would certainly afford a plenty of scope and platform to explore out the main target enzyme. These enzymes are to be targeted in treating diabetes mellitus may have a proven advantage in reducing the diabetes mellitus consequences. There are several evidences indicated Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase and variety of isomers are responsible diabetes mellitus, however Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase and its isomers are hardly targeted, due to inappropriate clinically validation lapse. Researchers are clinically validating the indeterminate Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase to establish an efficient method for variability of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase enzyme levels of various clinical conditions of diabetes mellitus and its associated diseases.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of l-carnitine against cyclosporine A-induced liver injury in white albino rats; a newly proposed mechanism of action Download Article

    Sanaa. A. Ahmed
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (215-225)
    • No of Downloads: 338

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    It is well documented that l-carnitine (L-C) has protective effects against various types of injury. Although its antioxidant action has been reported as a major mechanism, other suggested pathways may be implicated in its protective effect. This study was designed to evaluate the suggested pathways which may be implicated in the protective effect of L-C on liver injury caused by cyclosporine A (CsA). Forty-two adult male Swiss albino rats weighing 180–200 g were assigned randomly into 6 groups, 7 rats each: rats were given i.p. either sterile saline (1 ml/kg/d), L-C (50 or 200 mg/kg/d), CsA (15 mg/kg/d), or a combination of CsA and L-C for 4 weeks. The impact of L-C on the hepatic injury was assessed by estimation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (T.Bil). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both serum and liver homogenates. In addition, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in liver homogenates. CsA treatment caused liver dysfunction, manifested by elevation in serum AST, ALT, and T.Bil levels, and associated with elevation in MDA and reduction in SOD, GSH-Rd, PGE2, and NO levels in serum and liver homogenates. Concomitant administration of L-C induced dose-dependent improvement of liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and MDA levels. Furthermore, the administration of L-C at a high dose ameliorated the hepatic levels of PGE2 and NO. These findings suggest that    L-C has a protective effect against CsA-induced liver injury not only by its antioxidant properties but also, by its effect on PGE2 and NO pathways.

  4. Purification, immunogenicity and insilico functional characterisation of a putative metallopeptidase from Staphylococcus aureus Download Article

    Dileep Francis and Surekha Kuyyalil
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (226-234)
    • No of Downloads: 97

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    Staphylococcus aureus has been a serious healthcare concern due to the wide range of diseases caused and the development of antibiotic resistance to almost all antibiotics developed so far. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been particularly damaging due to its enhanced virulence and emergence of community acquired MRSA alongside the hospital acquired MRSA. A preventive immunotherapeutic alternative in the form of vaccines is being pursued by pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers across the globe. Multiple clinical trials to develop a vaccine have not been successful. Recent research data suggest that antigens with the potential to activate a CD4T cell mediated immune response rather than a B-cell mediated response would be the key to the development of a vaccine. Here we describe the purification, immunogenicity and insilico functional characterization of a putative metallopeptidase identified to be a CD4T cell antigen from S.aureus. The gene coding for the putative peptidase designated as MP1 was isolated using PCR, recombined with pET28a, and transformed into E.Coli BEL21 (DE3). The protein was purified and intraperitoneally administered to BALB/c mice. Protein specific antibodies in mice serum was measured using indirect ELISA. The protein sequence was analyzed for the presence of transmembrane helices, domains and signatures using bioinformatics tools. The protein structure was modeled using Swiss modeler workspace. Our results show that the protein induced significantly higher (p<0.05) antibody responses in immunized mice compared to control mice. The titers of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a on day 35 after initial immunization were 51200, 25600 and 12800 respectively. Insilico studies revealed that the protein belongs to MEROPS peptidase family M4 and contains the PepSY domain.

  5. Astashine capsules: an excellent choice to boost immune system. Download Article

    Govind Shukla, Nagalakshmi Yaparthy, Jyothika Vanamali, C.J. Sampath Kumar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (235-239)
    • No of Downloads: 225

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    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid which is derived from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. As well as being the most powerful antioxidant known to science, it also has potent anti-inflammatory properties. Natural astaxanthin´s distinct advantage in comparison to other antioxidants is its ability to span the entire lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus providing superior protection from the inside out. Natural astaxanthin has a strong ability to both balance and strengthen the immune system. This article reviews the current available scientific literature regarding the effect of astaxanthin from the algae Haematoccus pluvialis in Astashine capsules as a natural immune booster.

  6. Wrightia tinctoria (Indrajav)-Apocynaceae: Overview Download Article

    Sunita Verma
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (240-244)
    • No of Downloads: 357

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    Wrightia tinctoria is a perennial ornamental woody plant; belong to Apocynaceae family available throughout India. Various parts of this plant like stem bark, leaves, flowers and seed have been known to possess medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, wound healing, anticancer, antiulcer etc. The present paper is an attempt to provide a detailed botanical description, classification, phytochemical and pharmacological study of the plant.

  7. Evaluation of anti-Parkinson's effect of Peganum harmala on haloperidol induced catalepsy in experimental animal model. Download Article

    Abdulrahman M. Alshahrani
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (245-250)
    • No of Downloads: 179

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    Aim of the study To evaluate the neuroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala (PHEE) in wistar rat. Materials and methods Ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala was screened for anti-Parkinson's effect by using behavioral method, haloperidol induced catalepsy at a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Distilled water and L-dopa were employed as control and standard groups respectively. Results Peganum harmala at a dose of 100 mg/kg showed maximal decrease in catalepsy (71±4.0 at 60 Minute) as compared to both negative and positive control groups. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of seeds of Peganum harmala may be useful in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Comparative evaluation of analgesic activity of SSRI and atypical antidepressant: an experimental study Download Article

    R Agrawal, K Saha, S Mohapatra
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (251-255)
    • No of Downloads: 220

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    Aim

    To assess the antinociceptive activity of some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI- fluoxetine, escitalopram) and atypical antidepressant (mirtazapine).

    Materials and methods

    Adult wistar albino rats were grouped to receive control (normal saline), SSRI (fluoxetine, escitalopram), atypical antidepressant (mirtazapine) and standard (morphine). Different doses of fluoxetine, escitalopram, mirtazapine & morphine were administered intraperitoneally in order to assess their antinociceptive activity using tail flick analgesiometer method to pretested sensitive rats. Tail flick latencies (TFL) were assessed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after drug administration.

    Results

    Fluoxetine in doses of 5mg/kg and 10 mg/kg produced significant increase in TFL at all times of observation while 2 mg/kg dose did not show any change. Escitalopram failed to produce any change to tail flick latency with all doses at all time of observation. Mirtazapine in both the higher doses (5mg/kg and 7mg/kg) increased tail flick latency at all time of observation while lower dose (3mg/kg) produced no effect.

    Conclusion

    The SSRI fluoxetine and antidepressant mirtazapine possesses significant antinociceptive activity whereas the SSRI escitalopram does not. However these need to be further proved in other animal models and in clinical studies.

  9. Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS analysis of Ethanolic extract of Tecoma Stans (Family: Bignoniaceae) "Yellow Bell Flowers" Download Article

    G. Anburaj, M. Marimuthu V. Rajasudha, DR. R. Manikandan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (256-261)
    • No of Downloads: 221

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    Flowers of TecomastansLinn popularly known as "yellow bell flowers" contain flavonoids. Flavonoids has been established to have antidepressant activity of the possible phytochemical components from the ethanolic extracts of Tecomastans(flowers) .Among the phytochemical screening of these two plant extracts showed that the plant was rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and quinones. This study was extended by analyzing the potent bioactive compounds in the ethanolic extract of Tecomastans(flowers) using GC-MS. The analysis revealed that Tecomastans(flowers) extracts 25 compounds were identified in the flowers ethanol extract. Medicinal potential of these compounds needs further research on microbial aspects to develop safe drug.

  10. A work on synthesis & characterization of Piperidine-4-carbohydrazide derivatives with its antimicrobial evaluation of pharmaceutical interest. Download Article

    Paresh Shende and Kartik Vyas
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (262-272)
    • No of Downloads: 81

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    A series of piperidine-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester coupled with N-phthaloyl amino acids derivatives were synthesized, characterized and their antimicrobial properties were evaluated. These compounds were synthesized with dicyclohexylcarbodimide coupling of piperidine-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester with N-phthaloyl amino acids with N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimidefollowed by ring opening reaction with cyclopropylamine and reaction of ester with hydrazine hydrate to obtain final compound characterized using IR, 1H and 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against S. aurous, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, F. oxysporum and A. alternate. Some of these compounds exhibited moderate to good activity, where as some were inactive.

  11. Development of novel gastroretentive mucoadhesive pulsetile tablets for zileuton Download Article

    Vancha Harish, K.Nagaraju, J.Subhash, Dr.Nallathambi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (273-285)
    • No of Downloads: 113

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    In the present research work pulsatile drug delivery system of Zileuton tablets were formulated by employing compression coating technology. Initially the core tablets were prepared by 30% concentrations of super disintegrates, the formulated core tablets were coated with the polymers (Ethyl cellulose, EudragitL-100, EudragitS-100) by using compression coating technology. All the  core  and  press  coated  tablet  formulations  were  subjected  to  various physical and chemical evaluation tests.. The drug delivery system was designed to deliver the drug at such a time when it could be most needful to patient of nocturnal asthma. The thickness, hardness and weight variation shown by all the tablet formulations were found within the official pharmacopoeial limits. In vitro release of Zileuton core tablet formulations F1 (Drug, SSG, Talc, Magnesium stearate, MCC pH 102) showed faster drug release after 15 mins. Faster drug release can be correlated with the high disintegration and friability observed in this study. The enteric coated formulations C1, C3, showed maximum drug release after 4 hour. Time dependent pulsatile drug delivery system has been achieved from tablet of formulation C3, C6 and C9 with 95.5%, 94.76% and 97.48 % respectively.