Articles

  1. Changes in morphological, biochemical and yield Parameters of Macrotyloma uniflorum (L.) due to Panchagavya spray Download Article

    Dr. Jayachithra J and Abirami N
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (94-100)
    • No of Downloads: 1891

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    A field experiment was conducted to find the variation in growth, biochemical and yield parameters of Horse gram under different concentrations (control, 1, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10%) of panchagavya, and all the parameters were increased in 3% concentration. Since there was an increase in growth and yield at low concentration of panchagavya, it is recommended that the panchagavya can be used for spray after diluted properly. 

  2. CNS depressant activity of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Avicennia officinalis in mices Download Article

    S. Suman, P. Ravi Prakash, C. Ayyanna, G. Lakshmikanth
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (101-107)
    • No of Downloads: 79

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    The present study deals with the investigation of the ethyl acetate extracts of Avicennia officinalis leaves was assessed for an effect on the central nervous system (CNS) using neuropharmacological experimental models (muscle co‐ordination and locomotor activity) in mice. The extract used for a dose‐dependent reduction of the onset and duration of a reduction in locomotor activity. The result of ethyl acetate extract of Avicennia officinalis leaves (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) mostly decreases the activity. These results suggest that the ethyl acetate extracts of Avicennia officinalis leaves possess a wide range of CNS activities, which need further investigation. These results suggest that the extract possesses CNS depressant activity.

  3. In vitro studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Heliotropium indicum linn. Download Article

    Dr. Jayachitra J and Bharathi M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (108-114)
    • No of Downloads: 293

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    Objective

    The in vitro studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Heliotropium indicum Lin.(Boraginaceous) was evaluated by different assaying.

    Methods

    The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for total antioxidant activity, 1,1-diphenylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.

    Results

    The percentage of inhibition of the total antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was varying from ethanol and aqueous extracts.

    Conclusion

    The results clearly indicate that the ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of the study species is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.

  4. Effect of panchagavya with neem to promote green gram and analyse the Biochemical changes Download Article

    Dr. Jayachitra J and Vanitha R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (115-122)
    • No of Downloads: 97

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    To investigate the relationship between panchagavya with Neem and normal plant in green gram. The level of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and calcium and phosphorous of the green gram seed as influenced by the application of panchagavya with neem. The level of carbohydrate was gradually increased from low concentration to high concentration. Among the concentration tried, the maximum amount was found in 15% (carbohydrate, 10.4 g) and 20% (carbohydrate 14.2g) when compared to control. The levels of protein were slightly elevated from low concentration to high concentration. Among the concentration tried, the maximum amount were found in 15% (protein 11.1 g) and 20% (protein 13.4 g) when compared to control. The level of fat was gradually increased from low concentration to high concentration. Among the concentration tried, the maximum amount was found in 15% (fat 26.8g) and 20% (fat 29.7g) when compared to control. The results of calcium were slowly elevated from low concentration to high concentration. Among the concentration tried, the maximum amount was found in 15% (calcium 9.2g) and 20% (calcium 11.3g) when compared to normal. The level of phosphorous was gradually increased from low concentration to high concentration. Among the concentration tried, the maximum amount was found in 15% (phosphorous 21.2g) and 20% (phosphorous 21.6g) when compared to control.

  5. Hepatoprotective potential of Rheum emodi against ccl4-induced liver damage through regulation of voltage dependent anion channel expression Download Article

    Meesala Srinivasarao, Mangamoori Lakshminarasu, Tasneem Mohammed and Mohammed Ibrahim
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (123-131)
    • No of Downloads: 97

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    Aim

    In liver diseases VDAC has play as important role because it triggering the opening of the mitochondrial porin ion channel that leads to mitochondrial damage and induce apoptic or necrotic hepatic cell death. The present study, the relationship between expression of mitochondrial VDAC may underlie the protective effect of Rheum emodiagainst carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in Wister rats.

    Methods

    The protective potential of the total Anthraquinone glycoside fraction of Rheum emodi (TAGF Rheum emodi) was determined by evaluating Aminotransferase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium-induced liver MPT (Mitochondrial permeability transition) and VDAC expression.

    Results

    Pretreatment with a total Anthraquinone glycoside fraction of Rheum emodi showed significant preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to CCl4 control demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition, pretreatment with TAGF Rheum emodi at various concentrations exerted a dose-dependent effect against sensitivity to mitochondrial swelling induced by calcium. In addition, TAGF (400 mg/kg) significantly increased the transcription and translation of VDAC.

  6. Health benefits and pharmacology of Persea americana mill. (Avocado) Download Article

    Noorul H, Nesar A, Zafar K, Khalid M, Zeeshan A, Vartika S.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (132-141)
    • No of Downloads: 874

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    The Persea Americana, also called avocado or Alligator pear is a tropical native fruit that has originated from America. The fruit, a popular food, and a good source of potassium and vitamin D, fatty acids, vitamins, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. The fruit, leaves, seeds, is used to formulate medicine. Avocado is used to lower cholesterol levels and boost sexual longing, and to arouse menstrual flow. The oils of avocado are used to delight osteoarthritis and can be used as an alternate dietary supplement. Avocado and its oil acquire several salutary properties and hence they have been traditionally used for the treatment of different ailments and disorders. Avocado a nutrient-dense fruit that play an important role in healthy diets, containing almost 20 vitamins, nutrients and phytonutrients. In total avocados are brilliant sources of healthy monounsaturated fats and have naturally low levels of sugars and sodium. Avocados are an important dietary source of the vitamin B group, folate which is an essential nutrient for cell division, heart health, blood production, and during pregnancy. Adequate folate is critical for the prevention of foetal neural tube defects. It has identified as part of a healthy diet, this natural whole food may play a role in helping to manage conditions such as high blood cholesterol, low LDL level and weight management and eye health and decrease blood glucose level and use type 2 diabetes.

  7. Evaluation of phytochemicals and anti-diabetic activity of abelmoschus esculentus Download Article

    Agnes Jenitha X and Kanimozhi R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (142-152)
    • No of Downloads: 156

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    Okra (Abelmochus esculentus) is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In the present we investigated the phytochemical analysis of aqueous and ethanol extract of okra and the invivo antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus against Alloxan induced diabetic rat.  The standard drug glibenglimide (5 mg/kg) and Abelmoschus esculentus (150 mg/kg) were dissolved in water in given orally.  The blood glucose levels of rats were noted at regular intervals of time. A gradual decrease in the blood glucose levels was observed by regular feeding of “okra” Abelmoschus esculentus (ladies finger) fruit extract for about twelve days.

  8. In vitro studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Manilkara zapota Download Article

    Agnes Jenitha X and Bhuvaneshwari M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (153-161)
    • No of Downloads: 168

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    Sapota is one of the prominent fruits and belongs to family sapotaceae. India is the largest producer of sapota. In this present study, phytochemicals were analysed and antioxidant activity was determined for sapota fruit. The antioxidant capacity of the Manilkara zapota  L fruit extract was evaluated by three different in vitro methods: DPPH activity, hydrogen  peroxide scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract showed best antioxidant activity almost equal to that of standard ascorbic acid. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract may be due to its high phytochemical constituents. The high antioxidant capacity observed in aqueous and ethanolic extracts suggested that this plant could be used as an additive in the food industry providing good protection against oxidative damage. Results indicate that nutrient composition, phytochemical and antioxidant activity of sapota was promising. It is also a good source of antioxidants. These antioxidants are important in all of our diets, especially in infant diets. Thus sapota fruit can be used as a potent therapeutic agent.

  9. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of ananas comosus Download Article

    Agnes Jenitha X and Anusuya A
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (162-169)
    • No of Downloads: 240

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    The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ananas comosus L. Different concentration of ethanol and aqueous were used to extract the phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the pineapples was measured using the DPPH radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity. 10% ethanol was chosen as the best solvent for analyzing the antioxidant activity of pineapples. The pineapple was found to contain the highest antioxidant activity. This was also found to have the highest DPPH scavenging activity, total antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. This different were observed between the ascorbic acid content. The result shows that pineapple and its active constituents may be used in further antioxidant therapy.

  10. A review of newer therapy in dengue fever Download Article

    Arun Mathew, Venkat Paluri, Venkateswaramurthy N, Sambath kumar R.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (170-177)
    • No of Downloads: 511

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    Dengue is a viral disease that at present affects an enormous number of people in over 125 countries and is conscientious for a sizable number of deaths. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures, so various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review explains some of the published studies on this topic. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.

  11. A review of orphan drugs and rare diseases Download Article

    Venkat Paluri, Arun Mathew, Venkateswaramurthy N, Sambath Kumar R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (178-183)
    • No of Downloads: 98

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    The World Health Organization defines orphan diseases, as all pathological conditions, affecting 0.65-1 out of every 1000 inhabitants. They are usually not studied for their path physiology or for newer therapeutic options, as these are not economically viable. The Orphan Drug Act was passed on January 28, 1983 by USA to stimulate the research, development, and approval of those products that treat orphan diseases. Till date, 11 drugs (4.87%) for tropical infectious diseases has been designated with orphan drug status, and as many drugs for other infectious diseases. Several drugs with orphan status are used in the treatment of diseases that no longer meet orphan status criteria, such as AIDS and end-stage renal disease. Understanding of the human genome, nuclear cloning, rational drug designing, and application of high throughput screening in drug discovery programs, might lead to new drug discoveries for orphan diseases. Hence, there is hope in the future for patients neglected by for-profit drug discovery efforts.

  12. Amlodipine Potentiates Antinociceptive Activity of Ketorolac and Tramadol – An Experimental Study Download Article

    K Saha, R Agrawal, S Mohapatra
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (184-191)
    • No of Downloads: 102

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    Objective

    Dihydropyridines such as cilnidipine and amlodipine have been shown to block not only L-type but also N- type calcium channels. Ketorolac, a peripherally acting NSAID analgesic & tramadol, a centrally acting opioid analgesic are equipotent in treatment of mild to moderate acute pain. This study proposes to find any possible antinociceptive action of amlodipine and whether it potentiates analgesic activity of ketorolac and tramadol.

    Methods

    Adult healthy Wistar albino rats were grouped into 16 groups. The experiment was carried out using tail- flick method by analgesiometer. Different doses of amlodipine (2.5, 3, 3.5 mg/kg), ketorolac (15, 30, 45 mg/kg) and tramadol (10, 25, 50 mg/kg) and were administered intraperitoneally to select nonanalgesic doses. Different doses of amlodipine was combined with nonanalgesic doses of ketorolac & tramadol to study antinociceptive effect of combinations.

    Results

    Ketorolac and tramadol showed dose dependent antinociception which peaked at 2 hours. Amlodipine alone showed antinociceptive action at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg after 6 hour of administration. Higher doses of amlodipine (3, 3.5 mg/kg) in combination with nonanalgesic dose of tramadol produced significant antinociception. But Amlodipine at all dose potentiated the antinociceptive action of subanalgesic dose of ketorolac.

    Discussion and conclusion

    It can be concluded that amlodipine at high dose produced antinociceptive action. Combination of amlodipine with ketorolac and tramadol produced significant enhancement of antinociceptive activity of both tramadol & ketorolac in dose dependent manner.

  13. The scenario of COPD in dhaka city Bangladesh: Extensive analysis of the prevalence, manifestations and standards of diagnosis and treatment Download Article

    Md. Tanvir Kabir, Debasish Basak, Md. Abdur Rahman, Md Abu Kawsar Sarker, Sabbir Ahmed, Mahmudul Hasan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (192-198)
    • No of Downloads: 260

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    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a slowly progressive disease which is characterized by airflow obstruction mainly caused by bronchitis. Our study focuses on the scenario of COPD in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross sectional, prospective, observational & spontaneous reported study was carried out on all patients with COPD belonging to either gender and all ages, who were receiving treatment during study, from National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh. A case report form (CRF) comprised of questions was prepared for this study. The data obtained from this study were entered into computer and were analysed and presented by using GraphPad Prism. During the study, a total of 583 COPD patients were enrolled. Most of the COPD patients were within the age of 46-75 years and 98.0% of them were male. Two-third of the total COPD patients were advised to perform multiple diagnostic tests and 78% of the patients were diagnosed by the sputum test to determine the presence of microorganism and 83% patients were not diagnosed based on spirometry. Most of the COPD patients in this study were found to suffer from chest tightness (72%), shortness of breath (100%), shortness of breath during exercise (97%) and they perceived that when cold attacks it goes to the chest of the patients (97%). Our findings have revealed that 37% patients were taking beta agonist medication (salbutamol), 29% patients were taking long-acting anti-cholinergic medication, 100% of patients were using a combination inhaler, 61% patients were using inhaled corticosteroids, 38% patients were taking prednisone, and 92% patients received three or more antibiotics. Doctors should be more aware to diagnose COPD patients by the application of spirometry test and frequent prescription of antibiotics should be taken into account to preclude the chance of developing antibiotic resistance.