Articles

  1. Pattern of adverse drug reactions of cisplatin based drug regimen in a tertiary care cancer institute Download Article

    BK Mangal, P Agrawal, V Kushwaha, S Singh, A Gupta, A Singh
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-07)
    • No of Downloads: 1307

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    Aims

    To assess the pattern of adverse drug reactions in patients receiving cisplatin based cancer chemotherapy in tertiary care cancer institute.

    Materials and Methods

    A prospective, observational study was carried out from February 2014 to march 2015 after getting an approval from human ethical committee. Clinical and treat­ment data were collected from patients who underwent cisplatin based chemotherapy during the study period. Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) forms was used to record the adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The ADRs were assessed for causality, severity, preventability and predictability by suitable scales.

    Result

    During the study period, a total of 163 ADRs were reported from 54 patients received cisplatin based chemotherapy. Out of them 23(42.59%) were males and 31(57.41%) were females. Prevalence of oral cancer (44.4%) and cervical cancer (20.37%) were higher. Most of ADRs were associated with gastrointestinal system (57.83%).Vomiting 39(72.2%) was most frequent ADR reported. Other ADRs observed were nausea, alopecia, diarrhea, bone marrow depression, constipation, numbness, mucositis.

    Conclusion

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used anticancer drug and has a high potential to cause various adverse effects in cancer patients. Gastrointestinal ADRs were much more frequent than others. Most of the reactions were probably preventable with use of premedication.

  2. An overview on facts and myths on aging and prevention of anti-aging Download Article

    Prasanthkumar S, Lakshmi I, Sagarika BH, Kerthy J, M.Sudha, Sambathkumar.R, Venkateswaramurthy. N
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (08-13)
    • No of Downloads: 1397

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    The ‘anti-ageing’ movement claims many unprecedented features to combat the symptoms of ageing, to slow down the ageing process, to enhance health and vitality, to increase life expectancy and ultimately to improve the quality of life of older persons and thus of society as a whole. Two tendencies are included in the anti-ageing movement: (i) the practice of preventive ageing medicine using a large area of interventions, and (ii) the promotion of promising solutions, offered by life science biotechnologies and scientific progress to consumers of all ages, often despite systematic evidence. Striving to extend human life to its highest limit is reflected in what is called ‘longevity’ medicine” or ‘prolongevity’ and which has been also called ‘antiageing medicine’. Advances in all aspects of medicine, especially in the fundamental metabolic and functional process of ageing have led to new findings susceptible of transforming the traditional concept of physiological decline with age. Today researches based on prevention and treatment of ageing symptoms has reached a point where a new paradigm of human development is about to be offered a reversal of some ageing symptoms, control of different age-related illnesses, regeneration processes, human enhancement and replacement of different body parts are possible.

  3. Evaluation of gastroprotective efficacy of ethanolic extract of Curcuma amada rhizomes in rats Download Article

    S Kumar, R.S. Pawar, P.K.Chaurasiya
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (14-18)
    • No of Downloads: 1371

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    The objective of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective efficacy of rhizomes of Curcuma amada (mango ginger, Ambahaldi), Zingiberaceae in rats. The antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract was evaluated in Indomethacin, ethanol induced gastric ulcer model & stress ulcer by cold water immersion method in wistar rats. The rhizome extracts were prepared by a successive solvent extraction process with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol & water. Phytochemical analysis & acute oral toxicity were carried out using standard methods. The preliminary phytochemical screening of Curcuma amada  revealed the presence of  resins, tannins & flavanoids etc. The Ethanolic extract at a concentration of 200mg/kg & 400 mg/kg exhibit a protective effect on ulcer induced models & was compared with standard drugs Ranitidine, Misoprostol, Omeprazole. Percentage ulcer inhibition of Ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg for Indomethacin, ethanol & stress induced ulcer model were 39.31%, 40 % & 35 % respectively. Among the doses studied ethanolic extract 400 mg/kg body weight was found to be optimum for significant reduction in ulcer. The flavanoids present in the Ethanolic extract might be responsible for the gastroprotective action probably by maintaining the antioxidant level in the gastrointestinal tract thereby reducing mucosal damage. The extract exhibit ulcer protection activity in dose dependent manner.

  4. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Dactyloctenium aegyptium Download Article

    Veeresh Kumar.P, S. Shobharani , M.Ravi Kumar, T.Mangilal
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (19-23)
    • No of Downloads: 1422

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    The ethanolic extract of Dactyloctenium aegyptium was investigated for its anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl -Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats at 300 mg/kg body weight. p. o. A significant (P<0.01, P<0.001) anti-ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 89.71% ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer and 95.3% ulcer protection index in stress induced ulcer. This present study indicates that Dactyloctenium aegyptium  extract has potential anti ulcer activity in the three models tested.

  5. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida Download Article

    Veeresh Kumar. P, S. Shobharani, M.Ravi Kumar, T.Mangilal
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (24-29)
    • No of Downloads: 1405

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    The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the Fruits of Terminalia PallidaTerminalia Pallida is a potent medicinal plant in the Indian systems of medicine. Traditionally it is used as a cardioprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherogenic, anti-ulcer, etc. In the present study the alcoholic extract of the seed of Terminalia Pallida was studied for their antipyretic activity by milk induced pyrexia in rabbits. It was observed that the alcoholic extract produced significant antipyretic activity (p < 0.05). The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner.

  6. Prevalence and treatment of malaria during the AIDS infection in hospital area of Bamako, Mali Download Article

    Dembele JP, Oumar AA, Djibril N, Keita PM, Ba M, Garba MN, Maiga I, Dao S
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (30-35)
    • No of Downloads: 1363

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    Malaria and HIV are a major public health problem in developing countries. Our study was a prospective study to find the incidence of malaria during HIV infection in Bamako at the    national referral and teaching hospital “Point G” from May 1st, 2006 to February 28th, 2007 Among 212 patients hospitalized or followed as patients with HIV positive by rapid tests: Immuno Comb II HIV 1/2 (Organics, Strasbourg, France) and genie II HIV 1/2 (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, France); 46 patients had a positive malaria test (21.6%). Theses coinfected patients (Plasmodium/ HIV) have been enrolled in the study.  The age average was 34.4 ± 9.4 years. The sex ratio was 0.7. The patient majority had a CD4 rate less than 200 cells/mm3. The HIV 1 infection was predominant in 45 patients (97.6%). The risk of exposure to the complicated malaria during HIV infection was higher in patients with the AIDS stage than seropositive patients (p = 0.04 fisher). The risk of exposure to moderate anemia during HIV infection was higher in patients with the AIDS stage than seropositive patients (p = 0.01 fisher). The majority of patients did not use preventive measures which are 71.7%. The hospital case lethality was 34%. We can confirm that Malaria has been relatively frequently during the HIV infection in Mali. Malaria chemoprophylaxy combined to bed nets use by HIV/AIDS patient should improve the morbidity and mortality due to this disease.

  7. A study on colposcopic directed biopsy in early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix Download Article

    Dr.S.Vijaya laxmi, Dr.Kishan Bookya
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (36-46)
    • No of Downloads: 1432

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    The aim of the study is to determine the outcome of women referred for Colposcopy and directed biopsy with abnormal pap smears and smears showing persistent inflammation. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem worldwide among women. Cancer cervix is the most common cancer in developing countries. It is considered as preventable cancer since there is availability of screening method and effective diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Despite the accuracy and efficacy of cervical cytology in detecting and diagnosing cervical neoplasia, it must remain a screening technique with further evaluation based on histologic diagnosis. The objectives of the study are To study the Colposcopic features of abnormal pap smears and persistent inflammatory cellular changes on pap smear, To localize the lesion by Colposcopy and obtain a biopsy, To assess the prevalence of CIN in the study group. To correlate pap smear findings with colposcopic findings, To study the epithelial cell abnormalities by colposcopic biopsy of abnormal areas in such cases, To determine the existence of significant cervical intraepithelial lesion or invasive carcinoma in patients with persistent inflammatory pap smear. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the role of cytology and Colposcopic guided biopsy in diagnosing neoplastic cervical lesions.

  8. Histopathological grading and assessment of risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma tongue Download Article

    Dr. Kishan Bookya, Dr. S. Vijaya Laxmi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (47-52)
    • No of Downloads: 1446

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    The main aim to study the histopathological grading of squamous cell carcinoma tongue and to assess the risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma tongue. Histopathological grading of squamous cell carcinoma tongue is a prognostic indicator because squamous cell carcinoma tongue has potential for metastasis to lymph nodes mainly submandibular lymph node. The major risk factors are history of smoking and tobacco chewing. Surgical resection along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. After approval from the ethical Committee both retrospective and prospective studies for 3 years duration from March 2012 to April 2015 was done and  All the samples were taken from department of dentistry and department of ENT to the department of pathology for histopathological examination. All samples were processed and slides were stained with H & E and total cases in this study are 133. Squamous cell carcinoma tongue was more common in males accounting about 80.4% (107/133) with a history of smoking present 93.4 % (100/107) males and 23% (6/26) females, History of tobacco chewing seen in 91.5% (98/107) males and 34.6 % (9/26) females. History of alcohol consumption was seen in 30% (40/133) cases. On histopathological examination 71.4% (95/133) of the tumors were well differentiated, 26.3% (35/133) were moderately differentiated and 2.2% (3/133) were poorly differentiated.  Most of tongue lesions were well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, so main risk factors are smoking and tobacco chewing for commonest metastasis was to submandibular lymph node.

  9. Study of non-invasive predictors of oesophageal varices in chronic liver disease Download Article

    G.Chandra Shekar, B.Balaji, V. Chandra Shekar, P.Sammaiah, R.Kathyayani, Kishan.B
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-65)
    • No of Downloads: 1430

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    Esophageal varices (EVs) are a serious consequence of portal hypertension in patients with liver diseases. Several studies have evaluated possible noninvasive markers of EVs to reduce the number of unnecessary endoscopies in patients with cirrhosis but without varices. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate noninvasive predictors of large varices (LV). The study analyzed 100 patients with liver diseases from February 2014 and July 2015. Relevant clinical parameters assessed included Child-Pugh class, ascites etc. Laboratory parameters like hemoglobin level, platelet count, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin, albumin and ultrasonographic characteristics like splenic size, portal vein diameter were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done on the data for predictors of large EVs. The incidence of large varices were seen in 44. 46%. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of the presence of LV were palpable spleen, low platelet count, spleen diameter >154 mm, portal vein >13 mm, splenic vein >11.5 mm. Platelet count /spleen diameter <815 had a sensitivity. The presence and higher grades of varices can be predicted by a low platelet count, Child-Pugh class B/C and spleen diameter. These may be considered as non-endoscopic predictors for the diagnosis and management of large grade varices.

  10. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging studies of Carissa carandas L. Download Article

    K. Sumathi, Dr. N. Senthil Kumar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (66-69)
    • No of Downloads: 1400

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    Free radicals are implicated in many diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, arthritis, ageing. etc., In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained very importance. Various extracts of Carissa carandas L were studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity used different models viz.  ABTS radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, H2O2, Hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation and Super oxide. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression methods. The scavenging effect of plant extracts and standardized (L. ascorbic acid) on the various scavenging methods in the following order L-ascorbic acid Ethanol Ethyl acetate Chloroform Pet ether. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by IC50 values and the values are 124.62 TO276.42μg/ml (ABTS radical scavenging), 205.24TO 354.52 μg/ml (DPPH radical scavenging), 168.12 TO 262.48 μg/ml (Hydrogen peroxide),  204.06 to 292.44 μg/ml (Hydroxyl radical), 154.02 to 310.22 μg/ml (Lipid peroxidation), 161.84 to 360.44μg/ml (Super oxide). In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals, metal chelation or inhibition of the liquid peroxidation. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. The results clearly indicate that Carissa carandas L is effective against free radical mediated disease.

  11. Role of allopurinol as an oxygen free radical scavanger in prevention of ischemic reperfusion myocardial injury in albino rabbits Download Article

    G Gambhir, AK Gupta, IP Jain, P Agrawal, V Kushwaha, A Singh, AN Singh, P Tripathi, A Tilak
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (70-75)
    • No of Downloads: 1409

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    Aim

    To study the role of allopurinol as an oxygen free radical scavenger, in prevention of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in albino rabbits.

    Materials and Methods

    An experimental analytical study was carried out after getting approval from institutional  animal ethical committee. Albino Rabbits of either sex were divided into two groups control (n=5) and test group (n=5), receiving antioxidant allopurinol. Experiments were done using isolated heart perfusion apparatus (Langendorff apparatus). The experiment was divided into three phases perfusion (15 min) followed by ischemia (5 min) followed by reperfusion (15 min). LDH level of perfusate and coronary flow were taken as biochemical and physiological marker of myocardial reperfusion injury respectively were measured at 5, 10 and 15 min of post ischemic period. Control and test groups were compared.

    Result

    The result shows that in the group receiving  allopurinol the decrease in post ischemic LDH level was significant (p<0.01) at 5,10 and 15 min while there was significant increase in post ischemic coronary flow at 5 min  (p<0 .05) as compared with control.

    Conclusion

    Antioxidant allopurinol has protective role in prevention of myocardial reperfusion injury in albino rabbits.

  12. A review on carbapenem resistance and the role of pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship programmes in India Download Article

    V Hrishi, J Keerthy, B H Sagarika, K Sattanathan, N Venkateswara Murthy
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (76-81)
    • No of Downloads: 1437

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    Carbapenems are a group of β-lactam antimicrobial agents with an exceptionally broad spectrum of activity. They are used as a last resort against many multi drug resistant, gram negative bacteria, and in cases of infections due to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and Amp C enzyme producing Enterobacteriaceae. CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. However, widespread and irrational use of carbapenems has led to emergence of resistance to this group of drugs also, and there are at present very few available antibiotics, which are active against carbapenem-resistant (CR) organisms. Infections with CR organisms are associated with high morbidity and mortality with the attributable mortality rate as high as 40-50%. Carbapenem resistance is a global concern and the presence of CR genes in Indian subcontinent and its potential of international spread have been reported previously. Pharmacists have a responsibility to assist in the war on antibiotic resistance. They have the knowledge and resources at their fingertips to raise awareness and to act. There are multiple opportunities for pharmacists to assist in this campaign. The recognition of pharmacists as key members of antibiotic stewardship teams in health systems is a milestone in infectious-diseases pharmacy practice.

  13. Comparison of the herbal teas for obesity Download Article

    J.Priya, Chavala Veeranjaneyulu
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (82-93)
    • No of Downloads: 1509

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    Herbal tea is essentially an herbal mixture made from leaves, seeds and roots of various plants. As per popular there are several kinds of tisanes (herbal teas) that have been used for their medicinal properties. Some of them being consumed for its energizing properties to help induce relaxation, to curb stomach or digestive and genetic factors and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Usage of herbs in the management of obesity in the recent times is attracting attention.  Based on the available literature, for many of the herbal and weight loss products, there is little published information and there have been no clinical trials or the level of evidence is limited. Our literature survey also indicated that these herbal products fall below an acceptable level of evidence or with no scientific background at all, or they have a scientific rational but not to an acceptable level. Attempts were made in the review to define the features of possible herbal weight loss product. An ideal herbal anti obesity product should reduce the weight by 10% over placebo of treatment by showing an evidence of improvement of bio markers like blood pressure, lipids and glycemia without any side effects.