Articles

  1. Ulcer Protective Activities of Bark of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam Download Article

    Chiranjib Bhattacharjee, Amitsankar Dutta
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (372-376)
    • No of Downloads: 370

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    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam commonly known as jack fruit widely distributed in north east India, West Bengal and south Karnataka. Artocarpus heterophyllus containing polyphenolic compound like flavonoids and tannins and these components are known to possess anti-oxidant properties.  In addition there are reports that, free radicals are involved in causation of ulcers. In the present studies the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus bark, were studied on hard liquor (90% ethanol), and Pylorus ligation induced ulcer in rats. The reduction in ulcer index dose dependently in hard liquor induced ulcer and in pylorus ligation induced ulcer, by 100 and 200mg/kg body weight doses respectively by the extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus proving its anti-ulcer activity.

  2. Microdosing – An unprecedented move Download Article

    Agnesh. Valluri
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (377-381)
    • No of Downloads: 377

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    MICRODOSING OR PHASE 0

    An early phase of a trial has a vital role in the unprecedented expansion of the clinical trial sector and the drug development process in the emerging era. Micro dosing as the name reflects its definition, in this phase, healthy volunteers are administered a drug at doses of 100 micrograms or 1/100th of a normal dose, whichever is lesser. At such low doses volunteers are not exposed to drug toxicity but still drug effect can be determined  because the drug is bound to a radiolig and  which makes it easier for the detection of even minute amount of dosage .By possible powerful detection techniques like accelerator mass spectroscopy and positron emission tomography samples are drawn and pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamics  can be studied .Thus it  is helpful for both the patients and the   pharmaceutical organisations as this stands as an attractive approach that requires only few preclinical studies , phase 1 trial and a reduced amount of candidate drug  on human beings . Microdosing has a promising role in the study of drug- drug interaction besides pharmacokinetic aspects.

  3. Medication Adherence Pattern Of Hypertensive Patients In Rural Area Download Article

    Sagarika BH, Arun Mathew, Sattanathan K, Sambathkumar R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (382-387)
    • No of Downloads: 370

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    AIM & OBJECTIVES

    The study investigated the level of drug adherence among hypertensive patients at a tertiary care hospital in Erode, Tamil Nadu. Specific objectives included measurement of blood pressure (BP) control achievement, estimating prevalence of drug adherence behaviour, and establishing the association between drug adherence behaviour and achievement of BP control.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS

    A question based observational study was carried out for 6 months with 102 participants.

    FINDINGS

    From the total number of subjects, majority were females (n =56; 54.9%). Out of the 102 patients, 40.2% (n = 41) of them were found to be medication adherent and 59.8% (n = 61) were non adherent. Blood pressure control was achieved in 70.7% (n = 29) among adherent patients while BP control was only 39.3% (n = 24) in non adherent patients.

    CONCLUSION

    From this study it can be concluded that medication adherence is very much important for blood pressure control. Poor drug adherence behaviour prevails among hypertensive patients and it can lead to poor achievement of blood pressure control. Thus this study shows an importance of regular patient counselling and awareness programme for improving medication adherence.

  4. Awareness of pregnant women about folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to reduce neural tube defects Download Article

    G. Pallavi, Dr. C. Gopinath, Dr. D. Giri Raj Sekhar, P. Ramesh Yadav, Dr. M. Madhan Mohan Rao
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (388-393)
    • No of Downloads: 396

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    Aim

    The aim of the study was to measure awareness of pregnant women about folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to reduce neural tube defects.

    Methods

    A prospective observational cross sectional study was conducted for a period of six months. The study included all the women who are pregnant and who are planned to be pregnant in the study site after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Data was collected with the help of a self-prepared questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performed to test the differences between variables by using Chi square analysis. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.

    Results

    The present study was conducted on 200 pregnant women to assess their knowledge regarding folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. The results of our study revealed that 8.5% with high level of knowledge, 32% with intermediate level, and 38.5% with low level knowledge, and 21% with no knowledge. There was no association between the knowledge scores and the socio demographic variables like level of education, Gestational age, number of previous pregnancies. Pregnant women with a past history of previous pregnancies had poor knowledge when compared with the present first pregnant women.

    Conclusion

    Awareness of folic acid role and its requirements during pregnancy is low among interviewed women. There is a need to increase the awareness of the importance of folic acid among females of childbearing age. The different strategies are required to elevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them with some information about the benefits of this supplement. Further counseling programs would increase the level of awareness among this group and increase the consumption of folic acid in the correct time to prevent Neural tube defects.

  5. Wavelet based image fusion for detection of brain tumor Download Article

    Shalini Prasad, Arpit Shukla, Prashant Ankur Jain, Preetam Verma, Ved Kumar Mishra
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (394-398)
    • No of Downloads: 653

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    The proposed work is to apply a wavelet based image fusion algorithm is applied on the Magnetic Resonance (MR) images and Computed Tomography (CT) images which are used as primary sources to extract the redundant and complementary information in order to enhance the tumor detection in the resultant fused image. The main features taken into account for detection of brain tumor are location of tumor and size of the tumor, which is further optimized through fusion of images using various wavelets, transforms parameters. The performance efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated on the basis of PSNR values.

  6. In vivo neurological assessment of serotonergic response of Coriandrum sativum L seeds in mice Download Article

    Aslam Pathan, Abdulrahman Alshahrani
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (399-405)
    • No of Downloads: 165

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    Ethnopharmacological relevance

    Seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. have been used in the Indian traditional medicine to relieve stress and other neurological disease conditions.

    Aim of the study

    The present study was under taken to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.Ethanolic Extract (CSEE) in mice.

    Materials and methods

    Seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. Ethanolic extract was screened for anxiolytic effect by using Rota rod test, Open field test and Hole board test at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Distilled water and Diazepam were employed as negative and positive control groups, respectively.

    Results

    Anxiolytic like activity assessment of seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. Ethanolic Extract (CSEE) 200 mg/kg by using rota rod test shows significantly decrease in performance time (124) as compared to standard (110) and control (150) treatment group. While open field test of seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. Ethanolic Extract (CSEE) 200 mg/kg shows significantly decrease in number of square crossing  (21) as compared to standard (15) and control (28) treatment group. Hole board test of seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. Ethanolic Extract (CSEE) 200 mg/kg shows significantly decrease in number of head dipping (09) as compared to standard (07) and control (14) treatment group

    Conclusion

    The results of this study established a support for the traditional usage of seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. as anxiolytic medicinal plant.

  7. Therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin needs vigilance: An individualized PD response is variable Download Article

    Loan Gh. Mohammad, Tanki Shafiqa Aslam, Shabir Ahmad
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (406-410)
    • No of Downloads: 279

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    Therapeutic drug monitoring of Phenytoin is carried out to ensure effective and safe levels. Some of the factors complicating Phenytoin dosing include a narrow therapeutic window, high degree of protein binding, and non-linear pharmacokinetics. However, serum drug levels should only be taken when there is a clear indication to guide patient management. Scenarios where monitoring levels may be clinically useful include 1; establish an individual therapeutic concentration 2, aiding in diagnosis of clinical toxicity 3, assisting patient compliance and 4, guiding dosage adjustment in patients likely to have greater pharmacokinetic variability. The therapeutic range of Phenytoin is 10-20 microgram/ml. The study was carried out at a tertiary care where Neurology dept is well developed. This was a retrospective study a total number of samples of 2239 were included. Patients were taking only on monotherapy, Phenytoin. Samples were of trough levels and were taking the same dosage regimen. Patients were in the age range from 10 yrs. to 70 yrs. comprised 52.38% males and 46.62% females. 75% samples were in therapeutic range.

  8. Protective effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum on potassium dichromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats Download Article

    K. Somasekhar Reddy, A. Sudheer, M. Geethavani, B. Pradeep Kumar, K.V.V. Veerabhadrappa, Y. Padmanabha Reddy, J. Raveendra reddy, K. Srinivasu
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (411-415)
    • No of Downloads: 366

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    Potassium dichromate is a chemical compound widely used in metallurgy, chrome plating, chemical industry, textile manufacture, wood preservation, photography, photoengraving, refractory, stainless steel industries and cooling systems. Potassium dichromate a compound is the most toxic form of cr (VI) and has been demonstrated to induce nephrotoxicity associated with oxidative stress in humans and animals. 

    Aim

    The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum against potassium dichromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Materials and Methods

    Rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group III & group IV received methanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg b.w respectively) consecutively for 5 days. Group 1 (control) received normal saline only. Group II (toxic) received vehicle for 5 days. A single dose of K2cr2o7 (20mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on 4th day to all the animals except group 1. The protective effects of Cardiospermum halicacabum on K2cr2oinduced nephrotoxicity was investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation, kidney toxicity markers and by histopathological examination of kidney.

    Results and Conclusion

    Cardiospermum halicacabum pretreatment prevented toxic effects induced by K2cr2o7 through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of oxidative stress as well as by restoration of histopathological change against  K2cr2o7 administration. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that the methanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum has protective effect against potassium dichromate induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Review on rise of sister disease in type-II Diabetic patients Download Article

    Lakshmi I, Prasanth S, Sagarika BH, Keerthy J, Sattanathan K, Sambathkumar R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (416-421)
    • No of Downloads: 377

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    Current review was regarding the thyroid gland disorder in those patients who are suffering with Type II Diabetes mellitus. Many studies were conducted regarding endocrine disorders. This review highlights the prevalence of thyroid disorder and its complications if it’s not been treated at the correct stage. Current review details the underlying mechanism of thyroid dysfunction in people with type II diabetes mellitus and its reason. As thyroid dysfunction was asymptomatic in early stages, majority of the people neglects testing of thyroid biomarkers. As it increases it exposes in the form of clinical manifestations such as pigmentation, constipation, hives, weight gain/loss, loss of appetite, gray hair, unusual fatigue, tiredness increases. As it’s a common fact that every individual knew thyroid was   non-curable only maintenance was needed for lifelong. But where coming to the people with diabetes mellitus the condition was worsening, it leads to further complications and due to unknown reason in most of the patient’s thyroid will be uncontrolled and in half of the patient’s diabetes will leads to asymptomatic dysfunctioning of thyroid gland which is known as autoimmune disease.

  10. Evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea for anti hyperlipidemic activity in high fat induced rats Download Article

    Raghavendra H.G, Lakshmikanth.G, Samatha.Y
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (422-427)
    • No of Downloads: 428

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    The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea (T.purpurea) was tested in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat models. Here, chronic hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding fat diet for 21 days. The hyperlipedemic rats are grouped and Treated with fenofibrate (5mg/kg), T.purpurea extract, (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o). The plant extract treated groups are  significantly reduced the hyperlipidemia i.e., decreased levels of serum Total Cholesterol, Trigly cerides, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), and increase of serum High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) whencompared to vehicle control and standard drug Fenofibate (5 mg/kg). The results demonstrated that methanolic extract of leaves of T.purpurea possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity.

  11. An overview on the national burden of tuberculosis and its current status Download Article

    Keerthy J, Hrishi V, Sagarika B.H, Lakshmi I, Prasanth Kumar S, Dr. K. Sattanathan and Dr. R. Sambathkumar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (428-434)
    • No of Downloads: 490

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    Tuberculosis (TB) still remain a major challenging global health problem. India is one the high TB burden country, adding to 26 per cent of the worldwide TB burden. During the 20th century, TB became treatable and the therapeutic success of short-course chemotherapy was a break through. In the early 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic resulted in a resurgence of TB globally with more complications and challenges like occurrence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB). Atypical clinical presentation still poses a challenge. While treatment of TB and HIV-TB co-infection has become simpler, efforts are on to shorten the treatment duration. However, drug toxicities, adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions still possess a significant challenge. Hurdles like the lack of adequate coverage, low economy and weak health services limit access to high-quality tuberculosis care in some of the countries. Further, many public and private health-care providers remain delinked from national tuberculosis control efforts. In addition, tuberculosis is a disease of the poor and the absence of universal health coverage aggravates the economic burden of TB on the poor. Even though the advancements in tuberculosis control over the past two decades are strong, relatively high effort is needed to wipe out the pandemic. A pursuit for novel biomarkers for predicting a durable cure, relapse, discovery/repurposing of newer anti-TB drugs, development of newer vaccines continues to attain the goal of eliminating TB altogether by 2050. The present review focuses on the global and Indian tuberculosis situation. It emphasizes the epidemiological situation in India and the burden of disease in the nation over time.

  12. A review on causes of diabetes and foot ulcer Download Article

    Reshma UR, Lakshmi I, Prasanth Kumar S, Venkateswaramurthy N, Sambath Kumar R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (435-440)
    • No of Downloads: 360

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    Current review was regarding Diabetes mellitus along with its causes for foot ulcer. Many studies were conducted regarding etiology of diabetes mellitus. This review highlights the prevalence of diabetes and its neuropathic complications leading to ulceration stage. Current review details the underlying mechanism foot ulcer and its reason. Diabetes mellitus is increasingly common conditions in low income countries that expose patients to increased risk of mortality and morbidity. There is a long preclinical period (up to 9 to 13 years) marked by the presence of immune markers when β-cell destruction is thought to occur. Hyperglycemia occurs when 80% to 90% of β- cells are destroyed. There is a transient remission followed by established disease with associated risks for complications and death. Type 2 diabetes is usually characterized by the presence of both insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Insulin resistance is manifested by increased lipolysis and free fatty acid production, increased hepatic glucose production, and decreased skeletal muscle uptake of glucose. β-Cell dysfunction is progressive and contributes to worsening blood glucose control over time.  Identifying participants in the pre-clinical stages by screening offers participants and providers an opportunity to modify long-term risk before serious complications occur. Early detection of diabetes can be facilitated by periodic screening of the people regularly. Counselling of the community may help in lifestyle modification and its role in controlling hypertension and diabetes along with its complications and which should also be emphasized.

  13. Phenobarbitone induced steven johnson syndrome (SJS) Case report Download Article

    Dr G. Ramya Bala Prabha, Manasa Bollampally, Vyshnavi kuarra, Sharadha Srikanth, Dr.T. Rammohan reddy
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (441-445)
    • No of Downloads: 260

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    Introduction

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the leading causes of death in hospitalized patients. ADR is a response to a drug which is noxious, unintended and occurs at doses normally used in human for prophylaxis and treatment. Steven Johnson syndrome is an immune complex mediated hypersensitivity complex that typically involves the skin and mucous membranes. Steven Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are rare (TEN 90% SJS less than 10% body surface area detachment) but life threatening cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Drugs like antiepileptics (Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, lamotrigine), antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporins, sulphonamides) anti gout drug allopurinol are considered as one of the most common causative factor for these serious ADRs.

    Discussion

    A four year old girl, known epileptic for the last two years, has generalized idiopathic epilepsy. She had been on Sodium Valproate and well controlled. The mother stopped the Valproate having been seizure free for two years .Two weeks later she had a generalized seizure lasting for ten minutes. The mother consulted some other doctor who prescribed Phenobarbitone 20 mg twice daily. Two weeks later she developed a skin rash on the face which spread to the trunk, upper and lower limbs and lastly the mucous membrane of the mouth and genitalia. The rash was very itchy. She also complained of inability to swallow and burning micturition due to genital ulcers. She was admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in tertiary care hospital.  The symptomatic and supportive treatment with corticosteroids and liquid paraffin was given for the initial management of SJS. Patient was discharged after 24days treatment.

    Conclusion

    By the withdrawal of the drug, the condition of the patient was improved. So the drug withdrawal is the first line for management of drug induced Steven Johnson syndrome.

  14. Evaluation of alzhiemer’s disease of mimusops elengi linn. in the experimental model of rats Download Article

    Bhukya Ramesh, Santhosh Pawar V
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (446-454)
    • No of Downloads: 375

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    The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the possible role of Mimusops elengi Linn. flowers in experimental Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rats. Experimental AD in rats was produced by intra cerebro ventricular (i.c.v) administration of colchicine (Col). Various behavioural tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the possible role of the Mimusops elengi Linn. flower extract (ME)(100mg/kg & 200mg/kg doses) in AD. ME exhibited anxiolytic activity in Elevated plus maze test. In Morris' water maze test and Brightness discrimination test, ME pretreatments improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning.ME significantly reduced the acetylcholinestarase. It  reduced the Col induction increased lipid peroxidase activity, which was significantly reversed by ME (as seen from the reductions in the malondialdehyde level) and stabilized the rise in superoxide dismutase activity.ME might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, anti-oxidant and antianxiety properties, which are the primary needs to be addressed in AD.

  15. Adverse neurological events due to antiretroviral therapy in Mali Download Article

    Oumar AA, Maiga M, Dembele JP, Djibril N, Sangho F, Konate I Kone Y, Guida L, Tulkens PM Dao S
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (455-459)
    • No of Downloads: 464

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    Introduction

    Adverse neurological events during antiretroviral treatment (ART) are frequent and various1-3. Their diagnosis is difficult in developing countries where human resources and infrastructures are most of the time lacking.

    Aim

    To identify the frequency of neurological side effects in patients under ART in Mali

    Methods

    We performed a prospective cohort study on patients developing neurological symptoms  in a period of 12 months at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Teaching Hospital “Point G” of Bamako, Mali. Neurological diagnostic was established with the guidance of a neurologist. WHO’s sides effects table has been used to characterize and classify the side effects4. Analysis of data was performed with SPSS Software, version 12.0.

    Results

    A total of 420 HIV seropositive patients under ART have been followed.  Of those, 37 cases were found with adverse neurological events (8.08%). The sex ratio M/F was 1.06 and. the mean age was 41.2 years. Of the side effects, polyneuritis alone represented 83.8% of the cases, and polyneuritis associated to vertigo, headache and depression represented the remaining 16.2 %. We didn’t notice any these neurological symptoms at the initiation of the ART. The majority of the patients was infected by HIV-1 (91.9 %). Most of the patients, 89.2% were treated with a fixed dose combination of Triomune® (D4T+3TC +Nevirapine).  Five cases were at 3rd stage of WHO classification (13.5%), which justified stopping the treatment with d4T.

    Conclusions

    The use of Triomune® led to neurological adverse events in Mali. Any further new antiretroviral regimens must include a pharmacovigilance to detect eventual neurological side effects.