Articles

  1. Hepatotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of syzygium cumini. Linn leaves on experimental animals Download Article

    M. Sekar, C.Ayyanna, R. Niranjan Kumar, A. Siva kumar, G. Madhavi lakshmi, N.Siva Mallika Supraja
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (288-294)
    • No of Downloads: 469

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    Syzygium cumini. Linn Leaves were widely used as good medication for several diseases like antimicrobial, cancer, antihypertensive etc.

    Aim: The main goal of our study was to explore the acute and sub-chronic oral toxic effects of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium cumini. Linn Leaves on experimental animals.

    Materials and methods: Acute toxicity study was carried out by following OECD guideline no. 423. The different doses like 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000mg/Kg body weight were administered orally to the different groups of animals and observed for 24 hr after dosing and also observed for 14 days without giving drug. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, the parameters were after administering daily oral doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days to the rats.

    Results: Body weights of the rats observed weekly and Biochemical, hematological, histopathological assessments and relative organ weights of the rats were observed on 29th day.

    Conclusion: By observing the hematological, biochemical parameters and the histopathological studies it is finally concluded that Ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini leaves produces severe inflammation and fibrosis on Liver at oral doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000mg/kg body weight.

  2. Gender based assessment of 10 year cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients Download Article

    Payal preet, Anita K. Gupta, Harcharan Singh
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (295-301)
    • No of Downloads: 458

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    BACKGROUND

    Cardiovascular disease develops 7 to 10 years later in women than in men and is still the major cause of death in women. The risk of heart disease in women is often underestimated due to the misperception that females are ‘protected’ against cardiovascular disease.

    AIM

    To determine 10 year cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients of either sex with emphasis on specific risk factors predisposing to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in both sexes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Cardiology outpatient department (OPD) at Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. A total of 150 patients were included in the study. The data pertaining to four risk factors-ages, smoking history, blood pressure and serum cholesterol level was collected from all the patients. Data collected was used to calculate 10 year risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease by using Framingham Risk Score.

    RESULTS

    In the present study patients were in the age group of 35-60 years and out of 150 patients 85 were females and 65 were males. It was observed that serum cholesterol was in borderline range in 46.15% of females and 29.4% of males whereas raised serum cholesterol levels were observed in 23.5% females and 15.38% males. 52.9% of females and 92.3% of males were having stage 1 hypertension and stage 2 hypertension was risk factor in 47.05% of females and 23.07% of males. Smoking history was present in 4.7% of females and 61.5% of males. According to Framingham Heart Score, 8.2% of females and 26.15% males were in low risk category (calculated risk<10%). Moderate risk (calculated risk between 10-20%) was observed in 35.29% females and 33.84% males whereas high risk (calculated score more than 20%) was observed in 56.4% females and 55.38% males.

  3. In silico structure based molecular expression and modeling of PTEN gene for proteus syndrome Download Article

    Ayushi Arya, Ved Kumar Mishra, Naveen Dwivedi, Shubha Dwivedi, Prashant Ankur Jain, Amit Tiwari
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (302-313)
    • No of Downloads: 407

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    Proteus syndrome is a very complex and rare to find in world. It consists asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth in bones and skins. There are very few cases that have been come in light all over the world such as 1 over 1 million. The drug designing is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target. It also involves the design of small molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the bimolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Proteus syndrome is caused by AKT1 and PTEN genes. The PTEN gene is taken for the modeling and research. It consists 403 amino acids and it acts as a tumor suppressor. Proteus syndrome is not a disease but a disorder. It is related to the PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway which eventually led to the clinical approaches as their effect. So that, the structure based molecular expression and modeling can be taken to a direction and lead to the mainly drug designing for the welfare of the suffering persons of this syndrome.

  4. A questionnaire based survey on antibiotic usage and resistance among second professional medical students in a tertiary care centre Download Article

    Samina Farhat, Mohammad Younis Bhat, Zahid Mohd. Rather
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (314-319)
    • No of Downloads: 690

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    BACKGROUND

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed medications which serve a very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens; however they are very often misused. Health science students who are future physicians are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitude towards the growing menace of antibiotic resistance (ABR) for which the present study was done.

    METHODS

    A cross-sectional, questionnaire based survey was conducted among second professional medical students in June 2015 about knowledge, attitude and perception using a ‘Likert scale’ and analyzed by using simple descriptive statistics involving frequencies, percentages and proportions.

    RESULTS

    Of the 69 students, 66 filled and returned the questionnaire. All the respondents agreed that indiscriminate and injudicious use of antibiotics leads to emergence of resistance and they are less likely to work in future if taken too often. However responses in other questions were quite varied and divided.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Our study revealed the most of the student were aware of the issues related to antimicrobial usage like resistance and its consequences and further educational interventions are necessary to improve their understanding as well as their attitude towards antibiotic use.

  5. Evaluation of anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of chloroxylon swetenia in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats Download Article

    Goverdhan Reddy Puchchakayala, Kumara Swamy Damerakonda, Renuka. B
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (320-328)
    • No of Downloads: 558

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    OBJECTIVE

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Chloroxylon swietenia leaves in Male Wister Albino rats using in-vitro and in-vivo methods.

    METHODS

    Animals were divided into five groups of six animals each as follows: 

    GROUP-I - Normal rats given vehicle alone 2% Tween 80, (p.o).

    GROUP-II -Arthritic untreated rats.

    GROUP-III -Arthritic rats treated with 10mg/kg (p.o) standard Diclofenac sodium.

    GROUP-IV -Arthritic rats treated with 100mg/kg (p.o) of ethanolic extract.

    GROUP-V –Arthritic rats treated with 200mg/kg (p.o) of ethanolic extract.

    The inducing agent used was Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The biochemical parameters like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), and total WBC count was observed which were the major markers of arthritis and uric acid analysis (plasma). A significant inhibition of paw edema volume and body weight was observed from day 0th, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day in the treated groups.

    RESULTS

    A significant increase in body weight, reduction in paw volume of both hind legs were observed in FCA induced arthritis rats. A decrease in levels of RBC and hemoglobin were observed in arthritic rats. There was a significant improvement in the levels of hemoglobin and RBC in Chloroxylon swietenia treated rats. The increased levels of WBC, ESR were significantly suppressed in the extract administered arthritic group.

    CONCLUSION

    It may be concluded that the ethanolic extract of Chloroxylon swietenia at two different concentrations (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug.

     
  6. Emergence of drug resistance of Acinetobacter at tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Jethwa DK, Khokhar ND, Vegad MM
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (329-333)
    • No of Downloads: 514

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    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE

    Acinetobacter, although saprophytic, the emergence and spread of Acinetobacter in hospital environment is a major area of concern. . It has been associated with a wide variety of illnesses in hospitalized patients, especially patients in the intensive care units. These infections are often difficult to treat, because of the widespread antibiotic resistance. This study is conducted to know the prevalence and drug resistant pattern of Acinetobacter in tertiary care hospital.

    MATERIAL & METHODS

     950 isolates of Acinetobacter were obtained from various clinical samples, and subjected to identification by different biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility testing by disc diffusion testing by Kirby Baurer method.

    RESULT

    Out of 950 isolates of Acinetobacter, 82% were Acinetobacter. calcoaceticus baumannii  complex remained 18% were other Acinetobacter spp. Acinetobacter isolates were resistant to important groups of antibiotics tested, including amikacin (50%), gentamycin (65%), tobramycin (38%), ceftriaxone (92%), ceftazidime (80%), cefepime (88%), ampicillin-sulbactum (44%), piperacillin-tazobactum (38%),ciprofloxacin (81%) levofloxacin(82%), imipenem (10%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (65%), meropenem (15%), polymixin B (2.2%), colistin (2%).

    CONCLUSION

    Early detection of MDR Acinetobacter and infection control practices are the best defense against these organisms. Rational use of antimicrobials is an important aspect to delay the emergence of XDR and PDR Acinetobacter spp.

  7. Free radical scavenging and protease inhibitory activities of Datura stramonium L Download Article

    Punya Premrajan, E. Jayadevi Variyar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (334-340)
    • No of Downloads: 242

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    It is generally accepted that proteolytic enzymes are involved in the catabolic aspect of normal tissue remodeling and that altered activity of these enzymes is responsible for cartilage destruction and bone erosion associated with degenerative disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases. Hence the development of novel therapeutic strategies against rheumatoid arthritis should include both protease inhibitory and free radical scavenging elements. In the present study an in vitro evaluation of the free radical scavenging and protease inhibitory activities of the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L. has been attempted. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using the 1, 1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2, 2’-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The protease inhibitory activity was evaluated using the serine protease trypsin and the substrate BAEE (N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester).The plant extract showed significant radical scavenging activity with a percentage of inhibition of 51.8%, 78.7% and 67.7% for DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively. The plant also exhibited an inhibitory activity against protease with a percentage of inhibition of 58.30%. Results suggest that the plant extract possesses active principles capable of scavenging free radicals and inhibiting proteases that could be of therapeutic value in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Phytochemical screening and In vitro bioactivities of the various extracts of Carica papaya leaves available in Bangladesh Download Article

    Nazia Hoque, Abdullah-Al-Faysal, Iftekhar Ahmed, Nargis Sultana Chowdhury
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (341-348)
    • No of Downloads: 608

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    AIM OF THE STUDY

    To evaluate the presence of different phyto constituents and investigate in vitro bioactivities of chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya leaves available in Bangladesh.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Phytochemical screening was conducted using specific standard procedure. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging assay, determination of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities were studied using disc diffusion method and brine shrimp lethality bioassay respectively.

    RESULTS

    Results showed that the chloroform extract had higher antioxidant activity (IC50 value for DPPH was 55.202 μg/ml and total phenolic content and total flavonoid content was 127.8±1.131 in mg/g, Gallic acid equivalents and 110.499±1.65 in mg/g, Quercetin equivalents) compared to the methanol and aqueous extract. In antibacterial study, all the extracts showed mild to moderate activity with zone of inhibition ranging from 7 mm to 16 mm. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 values for chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were 17.142 μg/ml, 15.404 μg/ml and 18.126 μg/ml respectively which revealed very strong cytotoxic potential of the extracts.

    CONCLUSION

    The results indicate that C. papaya leaves could be a very potent source of natural radical scavenger and anticancer agent. Further studies are needed to be conducted to identify the compounds responsible for producing such bioactivities.

  9. Evaluating performance of our clinical biochemistry laboratory by application of sigma metrics & other quality indicators- A pilot study Download Article

    Arpita Patel, Payal Patel, Shilpa Jain
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (349-353)
    • No of Downloads: 541

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    Ensuring quality of laboratory services is the need of the hour in the field of health care. Six Sigma is a new management philosophy that seeks a nonexistent error rate, keeping in mind that we aimed to gauge our laboratory performance by sigma metrics. Internal quality control (QC) data was analysed retrospectively over a period of 6 month from February 2015 to July 2015. Laboratory mean, SD and coefficient of variation were calculated for all the parameters. We studied parameters which are in scope of NABL of our Laboratory. Quality assessed on sigma scale with a bench mark for minimum process performance of 3sigma and a goal for world class quality of 6 Sigma (σ).  Satisfactory sigma value (>6) were elicited for ALP & Total Bilirubin. We have achieved sigma metrics of the range 3-5 for   Albumin, AST, ALT, Total Cholesterol, Creatinine, Total Protein, Uric Acid, Glucose and Direct Bilirubin signifying acceptable laboratory performance with a scope for improvisation. Blood Urea performed poorly on the sigma scale with <3 sigma. The findings of our exercise emphasize the need for detailed evaluation and adoption of ameliorative measures in order to effectuate six sigma standards for all the analytical processes.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of herbal tablets incorporated with Strychnos potatorum and Punica granatum extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity Download Article

    S.Manimaran, T.K.Praveen, A.Manohari and Pachava Vengalrao
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (354-359)
    • No of Downloads: 509

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    Plants are always an exemplary source of drug. In fact, many of the currently available drugs were derived either directly or indirectly from the plants. Diarrhoea affects people of all ages, due to several causes- malnutrition, infection (bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms), zinc deficiency, etc. Severe diarrhoea becomes life-threatening, particularly in young children and people who are malnourished or have impaired immunity. The current study was aimed for the formulation and evaluation of herbal tablets incorporated with Strychnos potatorum and Punica granatum extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using above plant extracts. The prepared tablets were subjected to physical evaluation like weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability and disintegration test. The accelerated stability study for the prepared formulation was carried out and reported. Invivo anti-diarrhoeal activity was evaluated by using castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats. The standard drug used for study was loperamide. Animals was divided in to five groups of 6 animals each and diarrhea was induced by administration of castor oil at a dose of 1ml/kg b.w and the tablet formulation was administered at 50 & 100mg/kg dose levels orally. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated by estimating the total number of droppings, mean weight of droppings, number of wet feaces, onset time of diarrhoea. Results were analysed by oneway ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s test. Studies revealed that prepared tablet formulation at doses 50 & 100 mg/kg b.w p.o showed significant results in a dose dependent manner comparable with that of standard Lopramide 5mg/kg b.w.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, awareness of hypertension and compliance of antihypertensive drugs among patients attending cardiac OPD in super speciality hospital Download Article

    Sushil K. Sharma, Vineeta Sawhney
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (360-365)
    • No of Downloads: 539

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    BACKGROUND

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and awareness about the disease and adherence for the antihypertensive drugs is poor.

    AIM OF THE STUDY

    To assess the knowledge, attitude, awareness among hypertensive patients and compliance for the drugs.

    STUDY DESIGN

    A cross sectional study

    SETTING

    The study was conducted in outpatient department of Cardiology in Super speciality hospital of Government Medical college Jammu.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Hypertensive patients who attended the outpatient clinic during one month period of 1st July to 31st July2015 were given a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic profile, risk factors for high blood pressure, awareness & adherence to treatment were recorded and analysed in percentage.

    RESULTS

    There were 180 hypertensive patients, out of which 108 were males, 72 were females, 63.9% were in age group of 41-60yrs and from rural areas, 80(44.4%) have to travel at least for one to two hrs to reach the hospital. 80% of them were married, 87.7% belong to Hindu religion, 56.1% have qualification of 10thstd 31.6% were govt employee & 55.5% have monthly income of 1000-10,000. 75% knew that it is a lifelong disease and 72.2% knew that treatment is lifelong. Only 56.1% has knowledge of reading of BP, 87.7% and 63.8% has awareness of symptoms and complications respectively. More than 80% has awareness about the other risk factors.

    CONCLUSION

    Overall knowledge, awareness attitude and compliance of hypertensive patients was good as these were already diagnosed patients and were on follow up for 2-3 yrs. There is need of launching a comprehensive approach involving primary health care providers and to screen the patients in general public and to educate them about the disease & need to take drugs regularly.

  12. Effect of verapamil and nimodipine in reversing the ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety in rats Download Article

    R. Saravanan, V. Venkataramanan, G. Karthikeyan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (366-371)
    • No of Downloads: 533

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE

    Anxiety that occurs during alcohol withdrawal may be the precipitating factor for relapse of alcoholism. Earlier studies have demonstrated calcium channel activity peaks during alcohol withdrawal and calcium channel antagonists were found to decrease behavioral manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anxiolytic potential of calcium channel antagonists, verapamil and nimodipine during ethanol withdrawal in rats.

    METHODOLOGY

    Male wistar albino rats were fed with 10% ethanol liquid diet for 4 weeks. Ethanol was withdrawn 8 hours before test procedure. Verapamil (20mg/kg) and nimodipine (10mg/kg) were administered orally. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity.

    RESULT

    In the EPM model, the time spent in the open arm and closed arm was increased and decreased respectively in rats treated with both verapamil and nimodipine as compared to control. Number of rearing in open arm and closed arm were also increased which shows increased exploratory behavior in rats. In OFT model, the time spent in central squares and peripheral squares was increased and decreased respectively in rats treated with verapamil and nimodipine as compared to control. Number of entries into the central area and the number of lines crossed in central and peripheral areas were also increased in drug treated rats as compared to control. Number of rearing was significantly increased in the central areas but not in the peripheral areas.

    CONCLUSION

    Verapamil and Nimodipine significantly reduced ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety. Calcium channel antagonists could be effectively used as alternative to benzodiazepines in ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety.