Articles

  1. Studies on physicochemical and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Ichnocarpus frutescens Download Article

    Suchitra Naidu T, Emmanuel S, Aishwarya, Durga M.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (140-146)
    • No of Downloads: 707

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    Ichnocarpus frutescens has a broad spectrum in the indigenous system of medicine. It is commonly known as the black creeper belonging to the family of apocynaceae. The present study investigates the physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of three different extracts of leaves of Ichnocarpus frutescens by using standard methods. The phytochemical evaluation included colour and consistency, fluorescent behaviour and qualitative analysis. The Physicochemical screening determined extractive value, ash value and moisture content. Results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. This study of Ichnocarpus frutescens will help in quality analysis of crude drug and lay down the standards which can be useful in future experimental studies.

  2. Sheehan\'s syndrome- A review and update Download Article

    Jeeva James, Babin D Reejo, Dr (Sr). Molly Mathew, Ayshath Sunaira T. A, Kishor Jyothi T. S, Mohammed Mirshad C. M, Negha C. K, Safeera K. P
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (147-157)
    • No of Downloads: 595

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    Sheehan\'s syndrome (SS) is postpartum hypopituitarism caused by necrosis of the pituitary gland. Sheehan’s syndrome, though rare, is still one of the commonest causes of hypopituitarism in developing countries like ours. The clinical presentation is variable with abrupt or insidiously developing pituitary insufficiency after a heavy intra-partum or postpartum haemorrhage. It is usually the result of severe hypotension or shock caused by massive haemorrhage during or after delivery. Patients with SS have varying degrees of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Its frequency is decreasing worldwide and it is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in developed countries owing to advances in obstetric care. However, it is still frequent in underdeveloped and developing countries. SS often evolves slowly and hence is diagnosed late. History of postpartum haemorrhage, failure to lactate and cessation of menses are important clues to the diagnosis. Basal hormone levels may be enough in patients with typical histories, but most of the patients need more detailed investigation including dynamic pituitary function tests. The presence of anti-pituitary antibodies (APAs) has been demonstrated in some patients with SS, suggesting that an autoimmune pituitary process could be involved in this syndrome.  Pituitary MRI and CT may also be helpful for the investigation. Treatment of SS includes replacement of deficient hormone and the early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important to reduce morbidity and mortality of the patients.

  3. A review on AKT1 and PTEN gene of proteus syndrome Download Article

    Ved Kumar Mishra, Ayushi Arya, Naveen Dwivedi, Shubha Dwivedi, Ashwani Kumar Singh, Vineeta Singh, Prashant Kumar Mishra
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (158-163)
    • No of Downloads: 672

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    Proteus syndrome is a very complex and rare to find in the world. It consists of asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth in bones and skins. There are very few cases that have been come in light all over the world. The responsible genes for the proteus syndrome were AKT1 gene and PTEN.  AKT1 is causing of proliferation, growth in cell cycle and PTEN is tumour suppressor gene in which the change causes the growth in cells. Proteus syndrome is a mutation occurs in chromosomes and it is a disorder not a disease. The major breaks of pathway are commonly found and eventually lead to the clinical approaches as their effect.

  4. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge, attitude, perceptions of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions in fifth term medical students and their feed back Download Article

    Harish. G. Bagewadi, Venkatadri.T.V, Swapna. R. Nayaka
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (164-174)
    • No of Downloads: 69

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    Aim of the study-The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR’s) reporting and to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention.

    Materials and methods-This was a questionnaire based pre- and post-test educational interventional study. Students were given handouts containing information about pharmacovigilance and ADR’s reporting one week before the educational intervention.  A pre-validated 20-point questionnaire on (KAP) Knowledge, attitude, perceptions about Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR’s) Reporting was distributed to 5th term medical students (n=47). An interactive educational intervention (Power point presentation) was designed. The chi-square test and unpaired paired t-test was used for statistical calculation.

    Results- The overall response rates were expressed as percentages, Mean±SD. The Knowledge, attitude and perceptions of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions when compared before (pre-KAP) and after (post-KAP) the educational intervention, the correct response rates were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001).The feedback from the students was encouraging, handouts before the lecture classes helped them to easily grasp the pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions concepts better during lectures.

    Conclusion-The study concluded that imparting the knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR’s reporting promotes drug safety and rational use of medicines in future. 

  5. Case study a key tool in Pharm D education Download Article

    R.Srisha, V.Shivashankar.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (175-178)
    • No of Downloads: 572

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    The field of education has a long history of using the case study. The use of case studies has become of increasing interest to those in many areas of education and educational research .Now a days the use of case studies is becoming an interesting teaching tool.  The process of using case studies will aid student’s abilities to generate multiple pathways for certain circumstances and in understanding that there may be multiple, acceptable decisions for particular situations. The use of case study may range from extended case projects, thesis and dissertations with in depth research on hospitals, disease types. Case studies can be effectively used as a learning tool. The use of case studies in Pharm D curriculum can aid students improve their problem solving abilities and also practical problem solving skills. It also gives students confidence on real time work. Case studies improvise cost effective drug therapy and minimizes the incidence of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. It is also an effective method on how students can improvise on oneself and have a check on one’s own improvement. Case study also helps students to become professionally sound and gain confidence in their field because they become versatile as each day passes by and also experienced in various aspects of drug therapy. Case studies are practical based which effectively can be used to understand new phenomenon. It also aids in bringing about new innovations in patient care by exploring the students in to real time practice.

  6. Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic activity of clerodendrum serratum linn on high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats Download Article

    P.K. Kasthuri, Dr. V. Rajesh, S. Gomathi, K. Karthikeyan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (179-186)
    • No of Downloads: 575

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    The main objective of the study was to investigate about the antihyperlipidemic activity of the ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of Clerodendrum serratum Linn (EECS). Qualitative analysis of the extract revealed that it contains glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, proteins, amino acids, phytosterol, steriods, terpenoids & saponins. Acute oral toxicity study was performed. Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control, positive control, Std-I-Rosuvastatin + 5% cholesterol diet, Extract of EECS-250 mg + 5% cholesterol diet, Extract of EECS- 500mg + 5% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Parameters considered for evaluation  Weight gain ,Blood samples were collected, parameters such as serum lipid profile ( TC, TG, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c), Kidney parameters (Urea, uric acid, Creatinine) and antioxidant enzymes such as (SOD, GSH, Catalase) were analysed. Findings suggested that Clerodendrum Serratum Linn. is a potent drug for hyperlipidemia, the drug extract treated groups lowers TC, TG, LDL-c & VLDL-c and increases the levels of HDL-c and antioxidant enzymes such as SOP, GSH and Catalase in all high cholesterol treated groups. Kidney parameters such as urea, creatinine and uric acid levels were decreased in all EECS treated group.

  7. Beneficial effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus on MPTP induced parkinson’s disease in mice Download Article

    Harish .G. Bagewadi, Naresh Khanna, Chetan .S. Bhangale and Proteesh Rana
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (187-193)
    • No of Downloads: 1489

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    Aim of the study: Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Family: Elaeocarpaceae), has shown benefit in the treatment of depression, convulsions and asthma. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antiparkinson effect ofE.ganitrus 

    Materials and methods: Parkinson’s disease was induced by administering MPTP (2 doses, each dose 20 mg/kg at 2 hr. interval, i.p. daily x 1week).The mice of either sex were divided into 06 groups (n =12).1st group mice were given 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose (orally), 2nd group were administered MPTP (2 doses, each dose 20 mg/kg at 2 hr. interval, i.p.). Whereas 3rd, 4th and 5th groups - were administered with E.ganitrus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day,orally), respectively, along with MPTP. Group 6- received Levodopa (30mg/kg, i.p,) along with MPTP. Retention time in Rota rod test and latency period in catalepsy bar test was measured on day 0 and day 7. Assessment of oxidative stress was done by malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) measurement. One way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey test, with p<0.05 considered statistical significant.

    Results: E.ganitrus (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreated groups significantly increased the retention time in Rota rod test (p <0.001) and significantly decreased the latency period in catalepsy bar test (p <0.001) when compared to MPTP treated group alone. E.ganitrus (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreated groups showed significant antioxidative effect by decrease in brain MDA levels (p <0.001) and significant increase in brain GSH levels (p <0.001).

    Conclusions: In our study, pretreatment with E. ganitrus showed antioxidative activity and increase in retention time in Rota rod test and decrease in latency period in Catalepsy bar test. The anti-oxidative property might be responsible for the changes in behavioral test parameters in the MPTP induced Parkinson’s disease in mice.

  8. Primary sclerosing cholangitis- a comprehensive review and update Download Article

    K. Dilip Krishnan, Molly Mathew, Joel Johny, Dr. Raheeda T.A, Kripesh P, Alif Latheef, Fathimath Shamna R, Swapna P
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (194-205)
    • No of Downloads: 467

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    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology characterised by inflammation and fibrosis of the biliary tree. The aim of this review is to find out the cause, symptoms, and treatment of PSC. Remissions and relapses characterize the disease course. PSC may remain quiescent for long periods of time in some patients, however, it is progressive. The mean age at diagnosis is 40 years and men are affected twice as often as women. There is a reported annual incidence of PSC of 0.9–1.31/100,000 and point prevalence of 8.5–13.6/100,000. In most, the disease progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure. Cholangiocarcinoma develops in 8–30% of patients. PSC is thought to be immune mediated and is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. The disease is diagnosed on typical cholangiographic and histological findings and after exclusion of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Median survival has been estimated to be 12 years from diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Patients who are asymptomatic at diagnosis, the majority of whom will develop progressive disease, have a survival rate greater than 70% at 16 years after diagnosis. Liver transplantation remains the only effective therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease from PSC, although high dose ursodeoxycholic acid may have a beneficial effect.

  9. A breakthrough in the research of infertility with discovery of izumo and juno surface protein: A review Download Article

    Srijita Dutta
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (206-209)
    • No of Downloads: 608

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    For fertilization to happen, the foremost is sperm and an egg cell. In detailed study on fertilization, scientist had shown the mystery behind fertilization, that most important is the surface protein receptors, which is found on the surface of an egg cell, named Izumo and a similar complimentary receptor found on the surface of sperm cell, named Juno. Discovery of Izumo and Juno has created a breakthrough in the field of infertility research which will surely help infertile patients with a new ray of hope

  10. Haematological alterations due to typhoid fever in mayiladuthurai area, Nagapattinam. Download Article

    B.Anusuya and S.Sumathi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (210-216)
    • No of Downloads: 588

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    Typhoid   fever is an acute systemic disease caused by salmonella typhi and is a serious problem in developing countries. Typhoid is known to affect all systems of our body. The effect of typhoid fever (enteric fever) were studied on basic haematological parameter of patient  WBC, RBC, SGOT, SGPT, Hb, Alkaline phosphates, Total bilirubin, platelets, PCV, Eosinophil, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes. The comprehensive study of 50 sample were collected from culturally confirmed salmonella patient and apparently healthy individuals were used as control. Results obtained show that there was a significant decreases in the PCV, Hb, WBC, Total protein, Platelets, and PCV in typhoid patients compared with healthy individuals. But there was a significant increase in SGOT and SGPT as against those of apparently healthy [control] individuals.

  11. Parents knowledge and attitude on childhood immunization in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    P. Ramesh Yadav, Dr. D. Giri Raj Sekhar, Dr. Karunakar, G. Pallavi, P. Neelaphar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (217-233)
    • No of Downloads: 580

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    Aim: The main aim of this study was to assess the Knowledge and attitudes of mothers with children less than twelve years of age about vaccination.

    Materials &Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for a period of six months in a tertiary care teaching hospital.  A multi optional questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics were used to describe all variables. Association between dependent variables and independent ones were tested using Chi-square test. values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

    Results: In the present study almost 64% of the parents replied that they knew about childhood immunization. We have assessed that there was no significant difference between the genders. When the socio demography was assessed, a low literacy level was found in the rural mothers and p value is (0.00001).This was significant and needs to be addressed in order improve knowledge about vaccinations. Our study has found a significant difference in parents from urban and rural areas in terms of their knowledge and attitude regarding vaccination. There is no significance difference between knowledge and attitude of parents who already had children and number of children. Conclusion: The present research showed that parents had good knowledge and positive attitudes related to immunization. Majority of the parents in rural areas were unaware about the vaccination and its implications when compared with the parents in urban areas. Educational interventions are needed to upgrade parents knowledge with special emphasis on less educated and residents of rural areas. 

  12. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of cucumis sativus linn leaves Download Article

    Gomathi Swaminathan, Dr.R. Shanmuga Sundaram, M. Mamatha, P. Vaijayanthimala
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (224-230)
    • No of Downloads: 623

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    Qualitative analysis of the extract revealed that it contains Glycosides, Alkaloids, Tannins, Proteins and amino acids, Phytosterol and Steriods, Terpenoids, Saponins. The anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Cucumis sativus Linn (EECS) was studied on the Various cell line HeLa, HepaG2 by using MTT Assay method. The EECS at dose 62.5 µg, 125 µg,  250 µg, 500 µg, produced a significant anticancer activity against HeLa and HepG2 cancer cell lines.When compare the % cell inhibition of HeLa and HepG2, HepG2 is giving more significant activity than HeLa. It shows that triterpenoids present in extract may be possibly responsible for the anticancer activities.

  13. Evaluation of Cardiotonic and Cardioprotective Effects of Paederia foetida. Download Article

    Tejaswi Burra, Raju Bairi, Vijay kumar Kusuma
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (231-244)
    • No of Downloads: 518

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    Aim of the study

    The present study is undertaken to study the cardiotonic activity and its protective role on heart by Paederia foetida belonging to the family Rubiaceae.  

    Materials and Methods

    Paederia foetida leaf extracts with ethanol and hydro alcoholic (aq. Methanol) as solvents is prepared by maceration for 72h. Both the extracts have shown presence of cardiac glycosides, iridoids glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phytosterols and aminoacids on phytochemical screening. These extracts PFEE and PFHE were screened for cardio tonic activity by \"Isolated Frog Heart Perfusion Technique\" and protective role studies by using Isoproterenol induced cardio toxicity in Wistar albino rats by administering PFEE and PFHE (200mg/kg) for a period of 14 days and Isoproterenol on 15th day (5.25mg/kg) and 16th day (8.5mg/kg) subcutaneously. Cardio protection was assessed by estimating the cardiac marker enzymes Aspartate dehydrogenase, Alanine dehydrogenase, Creatine Kinase MB, Lactate dehydrogenase and Total Protein levels in serum and heart tissues. Biochemical studies of assay of Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase were performed by administering the extracts 200mg/kg orally for a period of 7 days.

    Results

    Paederia foetida extracts has produced significant positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effect similar to that of standard drug digoxin. These effects were antagonized in presence of nifedipine but not with propranolol. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in membrane Na+K+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase and an increase in Ca2+ATPase on comparison to normal control, further confirmed its cardiotonic activity. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly (p<0.05) by the administration of the extracts both in serum and heart tissue levels. This activity can be attributed due to presence of particular cardiac glycosides and iridoids glycosides which can further processed.

    Conclusion

    Our work clearly shows that Paederia foetida possesses cardio tonic activity without altering the normal physiology of heart.

  14. In vitro studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of citrus maxima Download Article

    G.VADIVUKARASI and X. AGNES JENITHA
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (245-251)
    • No of Downloads: 493

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    Citrus fruits are rich source of vitamin-C (Ascorbic acid). In the present study the antioxidant activities of the pulp of some of the citrus fruits has been investigated. The results indicate that the aqueous extracts from citrus fruit pulp contain significant antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by various procedures and it has been determined that aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether fraction of pulps of citrus fruits possessed maximum antioxidant activity in reference to standard antioxidant.  The study thus revealed that pulp of Citrus maxima fruits are useful for consumption and are beneficial for health. This study may thus lead to the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of citrus maxima. They can be used as a potent natural antioxidant additive or food products and as a dietary supplement.

  15. A Study on anti-Inflammatory activity of Thiazolo-Thiourea Sydnones in albino rats Download Article

    Dr Jagadeesh K, Dr Shreenivas P Revankar, Dr Santhosh Kumar M
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (252-258)
    • No of Downloads: 489

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    Sydnones are proved to be important members of the meso-ionic system and are studied extensively for their pharmacological activities. In the present study several newly synthesized sydnones have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study experiments for both acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity were carried out viz., Carrageenan induced rat paw edema inhibition test to study the acute anti-inflammatory activity and cotton pallet granuloma inhibition test to study the chronic anti-inflammatory activity. These meso-ionic compounds-sydnones have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory. Among the various substituted thiazolyl thiourea sydnones 10 compounds were tried initially employing Carrageenan induced rat paw edema inhibition test for picking up an agent with anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 3, 6, 8 and 9 which have shown considerable acute anti-inflammatory activity

  16. Role Of Clinical Pharmacist In Identifying The Factors That Influence Medication Non- Adherence And Improvement On Hospitalised Geriatric Non-Adherent Patients Download Article

    B. Sarada, N. Krupa Sagar, V.Gowthami, E. Kiran Kumar Reddy, E. Sam Jeeva Kumar, Dr. M. Sureshwar Reddy
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (259-268)
    • No of Downloads: 544

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    Background- Poor adherence is one of the major factors which alters therapeutic outcome of medication in geriatric patients with chronological diseases.  Medication non-adherence is one of the drug related barrier for hospitalization of elderly patients. So, there is a need to assess the factors responsible for hospitalization of elderly patients due to medication non-adherence.

    Aim- To identify the factors responsible for hospitalization of elderly patients due to medication non-adherence and importance of clinical pharmacist role in the improvement of medication adherence

    Materials & Methods- Morisky 8-item Medication Adherence Questionnaire- to identify medication non adherence, patient information leaf lets. A prospective interventional study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital,

    Results- A total of 423 patients were interviewed. Out of these 182 patients were included in the study. Among these 42 patients were affected by polypharmacy, 38 patients were affected by lack of knowledge, 34 patients were affected for being asymptomatic, 30 patients were affected by cost of medication. After patient counseling, 18 patients had overcome from non-adherence due to polypharmacy, 33 patients had overcome non-adherence due to lack of knowledge, 28 patients had overcome non-adherence by being asymptomatic.

    Conclusion- The present study showed that the clinical pharmacist involvement in disease management has positive impact in creating awareness about the disease, which improves medication adherence along with quality of life.

  17. Effect of topical tazoretene in comparison to topical corticosteroids on serum proteins in chronic plaque psoriasis Download Article

    Dr Jagadeesh K, Dr Santhosh Kumar M, Dr Shreenivas Revankar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (269-275)
    • No of Downloads: 527

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    Tazarotene, the first of new generation receptor selective topical retinoid, currently being investigated and widely used in treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. Objective: Effect of topical tazoretene in comparison to topical corticosteroids on serum proteins in chronic plaque psoriasis. Meterials and Methods:  50 patients of chronic plaque psoriasis enrolled in to the study, were divided into two groups of 25 each randomly. One group received once daily application of tazarotene gel and the other group received mometasone  furoate cream once daily. Both the groups received treatment for 12 weeks. Serum protein levels were estimated at base line and at 12 weeks.

    Results: Both tazarotene gel and mometasone cream were significantly effective. The baseline serum proteins were below normal in both the groups, which significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment. However there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups on serum proteins.

    Interpretation and Conclusion

    Though mometasone furoate was found to be superior to tazarotene, it can still be used in place of corticosteroids for mild to moderate cases to overcome the well known adverse effects of corticosteroids.

     
  18. Biochemical screening of dengue fever Download Article

    Shameemunnisa S.A.K and Agnes jenitha X
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (276-287)
    • No of Downloads: 518

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    Dengue virus infection is a serious health problem infecting 2.5 billion people worldwide. Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedesmosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The relationship of this country with dengue has been long and intense. The first recorded epidemic of clinically dengue like illness occurred at Madras in 1780 and the dengue virus was isolated for the first time almost simultaneously in Japan and Calcutta in 1943–1944. After the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever along the East Coast of India in 1963–1964, it spread to allover the country. The first full-blown epidemic of the severe form of the illness, the dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome occurred in North India in 1996. Aedesaegyptiis the vector for transmission of the disease. Vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) is to control the mosquito vector, Aedesaegypti and prevent its bite. This country has few virus laboratories and some of them have done excellent work in the area of molecular epidemiology, immunopathology and vaccine development. Selected work done in this country on the problems of dengue is presented here. Dengue fever is a re-emergent and challenging public health problem in the world. In this review we will give an overview of the infectious DENV and will discuss the viral and host factors that are important in controlling DENV  infection.