Articles

  1. In vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Triumfetta rhomboidea against different cancer cell lines Download Article

    S.Hemalatha, Dr. P.Sivakumar, Dr. P.Perumal, Dr. B.Jayakar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (01-06)
    • No of Downloads: 1404

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    Triumfetta rhomboidea (TR) is being used in traditional medicine for a variety of ailments.  It is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical part of India up to an elevation of 1,200 m in the Himalayas. Triumfetta rhomboidea   is used for tumor, leprosy, gonorrhea, intestinal ulcer, dysentery and various other ailments. The aim of the work is to explore phytochemical constituents present in leaves extract and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the plant. The phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of Triumfetta rhomboidea revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and terpenoids. To substantiate the traditional claim of TR for its cytotoxic activity, extract was tested on different cell lines (In vitro). The leaves extract from Triumfetta rhomboidea   was subjected for cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (Human, colorectal cancer cell line), HeLa (Human, Epithelial cervical cancer) and CC12 (Mouth muscle cell line) cell lines by Microculture Tetrazolium (MTT) assay method. The extract exhibited moderate cytotoxic properties towards cancerous cell lines HT-29 and HeLa models. Where as against C­2C12, test extract failed to exhibit cytotoxicity even at higher test concentrations. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that the extract has moderate cytotoxic effect.

  2. Pattern of drug prescriptions in pediatrics ward of university of gondar specialized hospital, gondar, ethiopia Download Article

    Tadele Atinafu, Elias Zenebe, Fisseha Tadele, Talegeta Ketema, Tarekegn Dessie, Tesfagegn Gobezie, Zeryawkal Ergetie, Mulugeta Fentie, Jeevanandham Somasundaram, Taddese Mekonnen

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    Introduction: The assessment of prescribing pattern in pediatrics has an important relevance to identify problems regarding rational uses of drugs and to propose intervention. The objective of this study was to evaluate and assess pattern of drug prescribing practice in Gondar University specialized hospital pediatrics ward.

    Method: Retrospective stratified systematic random sampling method was conducted from January 26-June 12, 2013 on a total of 347 patient charts.

    Result: About 60% of drugs were prescribed empirically. This study showed that 45(13%) of the diagnosis were without treatment. On the other hand, 30 (8.6%) of the drugs were prescribed without indication. Antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed agents (75.5%) followed by fluid and electrolytes (54.5%). Gentamycin was the highly prescribed individual drug (10.80%) followed by Ampicillin (10.02%), and Paracetamol (8.83%). About 92% of the drugs were prescribed in correct frequency and 88.8% of the drugs were prescribed in correct dose. Injectables were the top prescribed dosage form (49.18%) followed by solid dosage forms (32.97%). About 83.19% of the drugs were prescribed in their generic name.

    Conclusion: The study showed that antibiotics were the most frequently prescribed groups of drugs followed by fluid and electrolytes and analgesics. There was good prescribing practice concerning polypharmacy according to WHO recommendation. Injectables were the most prescribed dosage forms and solid dosage forms were the second. Majority of the drugs were prescribed empirically. So, there should be correction of such empiric prescription to decrease risk of drug resistance and cost.

  3. Effect of sodium valproate on neural tube development in chick embryos Download Article

    M.A.Doshi, Shabana sultana, N.Jayasree, Aruna jyothi, Mrudula chandrupatla
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (15-18)
    • No of Downloads: 1541

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    Valproic acid is an antiepileptic drug prescribed as monotherapy in newly diagnosed cases of Epilepsy. It is also useful in combating generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Partial Seizures, and Myoclonic Seizures. It acts by increasing the levels of the Neurotransmitter GABA in the cerebrum. Valproate inhibits sustained repetitive firing induced by depolarization of cortical or spinal cord neurons. It produces small reductions of the low-threshold (T) Calcium current at clinically relevant but slightly higher concentrations then limit sustained repetitive firing. Reducing T currents may contribute to the effectiveness of Valproic acid against partial and tonic–clonic seizures and absence seizures respectively. In vitro, Valproate can stimulate the activity of the GABA synthetic enzymes, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and inhibit GABA degradative enzymes, GABA transaminases. However, studies show that they cause defects in the formation of neural tube if used during pregnancy. In the present study fertilized eggs were administered with Sodium Valproate and the development of neural tube was studied after 21 days. The histological and gross features of neural tube were identified. 

  4. Anti microbial activity of Ocimum basilicum and Achyranthes aspera Download Article

    Sutha P, Gomathi M , Partha sarathi K V, Sangameswaran B
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (19-23)
    • No of Downloads: 1605

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    The aim of the study was to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of plant extract taken from two different plants, Achyranthes aspera Linn., and Ocimum basilicum against Streptomyces fulvissimus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri, Escherichiae coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonus aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenumusing well diffusion method. The in vitro study revealed that ethanolic extract was more effective than aqueous extract. Plant extracts of A.aspera Linn. was reported to be more effective on fungal and bacterial species than O.basilicum.

  5. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum whole plant against alloxan and streptozotocin induced diabetics in rats Download Article

    Syed Safiullah Ghori, Nafeesunnisa Begum, Mohammed Shoibuddin Khateeb
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (24-36)
    • No of Downloads: 1376

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    The present research was carried out to evaluate Antidiabetic activity of Heliotropium indicum ethanolic extract in alloxan and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats Helitropium indicum whole plant was extracted using ethanol as solvent by Soxhlet apparatus. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed to determine test dose. Alloxan and streptozotocin were used for inducing diabetes in albino Wistar rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Doses up to 2000mg/kg were found to be safe after acute toxicity tests. The results suggested that EHI possess anti diabetic activity against diabetes induced by both alloxan and streptozotocin.

  6. A review on traditional ayurvedic medicinal plants used in the sundarban mangrove forest in bangladesh Download Article

    Md.Shariful Islam, Md.Farzanoor Rahman, Md.Amir Hamja Raju, Masum Parvez, Hasibul Haque Rakib, Binita Shome
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (37-44)
    • No of Downloads: 1645

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    Medicinal Plants have been used for thousands of years to flavor and conserve food, to treat health disorders and to prevent diseases including epidemics. Recently, dramatic changes have taken place in the primary health care system of world population through the development of science, technology and medical science, but till to day 400 cores of people of the worldwide are totally dependent on herbal medicine. In Bangladesh, various types of diseases affect thousands of people every year, especially children are so much vulnerable. In this review, we have choosen 6 plant species that are used in the treatment of various types of eruptions, gastrointestinal infection etc. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the diseases. The diarrheal outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. We just here figure out some so much beneficial ayurvedic plants (Diospyros peregrina Gürke, Heritiera littoralis Dryand, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatumn) traditional uses against gastrointestinal infection, eruptions, catarrhal bronchitis, dysentery, and as an anti inflammatory agent. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants.

  7. Study of antipyretic activity of Basella alba leaf extract Download Article

    R. Chandrasekar, B. Sivagami, S. Mounika Reddy
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (45-48)
    • No of Downloads: 1365

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    In the present investigation preliminary phytochemical screening on leaves extract of Basella alba revealed the presence of Proteins, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, ash, calcium, vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin. The antipyretic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of Basella alba was evaluated in albino rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed significant activity against yeast induced pyrexia at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively. The antipyretic effects of the extracts were comparable to that of standard drug (Paracetamol 150 mg/kg).

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of root and stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Download Article

    Dr.Bijoy Chirayath, N.Sriram, Chatlapelli Kishore
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (49-52)
    • No of Downloads: 1393

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    Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as \'Chemmandharai\' in Hindi. It is distributed almost throughout India. Its powdered root and stem bark is traditionally used for tonic and ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are used as antidote to snake poison. NSAIDs are one of the most widely used categories of drugs presently and there are many clinical situations where one needs to use them for fairly long periods. A literature survey of herbs with anti-inflammatory effects led to Bauhinia variegata which was quoted in the Ayurvedic literature as having many therapeutic activities. Lot of research work is reported on this plant but the root and stem bark was not evaluated for anti-inflammatory activities. A hydro ethanolic extract was prepared and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using conventional pharmacological animal models. The results indicated that the bark extract at a dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity compared to the root extracts and control group.

  9. Studying the effects of Ruta graveolens on spontaneous motor activity, skeletal muscle tone and strychnine induced convulsions in albino mice and rats Download Article

    Shaban E. A. Saad, Suher M. Aburawi, Isabel Fong, Salem O. Abdalla, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Hend M. Shubar, Madiha T. Al-gadamsy
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-58)
    • No of Downloads: 1497

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    Ruta graveolens is a plant commonly found in north Africa and south Europe. It is reported  that Ruta graveolens is used traditionally for epilepsy and some other illnesses. The acute and sub-acute effects of alcoholic extract residue were tested  for possible antiepileptic  and skeletal muscle relaxation activity. The effect of extract on rat spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also investigated using open filed. We previously proved the anticonvulsant activity of the plant against pentylenetetrazol and electrically induced  convulsions. Therefore in this study strychnine  was used to induce convulsions in order to explore the mechanism of anticonvulsant activity of the plant. The skeletal muscle relaxation activity of Ruta graveolens was studied using pull-up and rod hanging tests in rats. At concentration of 5%w/v  the extract protected mice against strychnine induced myoclonic jerks and death. The pull-up and rod hanging tests pointed to a skeletal muscle relaxant activity at higher concentrations. Ruta graveolens extract also significantly decreased the  number of squares visited by rats in open field apparatus at all tested concentrations (7.5-20%w/v). However, the significant decrease in number of rearings was noticed at concentrations of above 10%w/v.  The results indicate that Ruta graveolens contains compound(s) capable to inhibit convulsions, decrease SMA  and/or diminish skeletal muscle tone in animal models. This data and the previously generated data together point to a general depression trend of CNS produced by  Ruta graveolens.

  10. A study on comparison of monotherapy versus combination therapy for hypertensive patients at tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Sara Azad, Kobra Najafzadeh, Dr.Shobharani R.H., Dr.R.Shankarprasad, Mahvash Iram
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (59-68)
    • No of Downloads: 1387

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    Objective:To compare the therapeutic benefit of monotherapy and multiple therapy by assessing clinical outcome (BP measurement), To address and document the various adverse effects observed during monotherapy and multiple therapies for hypertensive patients, To compare the cost of both therapies during the treatment.

    Material and Methods:Two groups were included during the period of study, monotherapy and second group who received multiple therapy( dual therapy, triple therapy, quadruple therapy) ; Comparative study was done by measuring the outcome clinically by observing change in the BP. safety of the treatment regimen was assessed by observing the ADRs and cost comparison was carried out between the groups. ANOVA test was applied to check the statistical significance of the above mentioned parameters.

    Results: Out of total 200 patients, most of the patients (127) were females and the remaining (73) were males. Among 200 patients enrolled, 152 patients had hypertension along with other co morbidities and diabetes was the most common co morbid condition which was present in 126 patients. Most of patients were treated with monotherapy (96) which was followed by dual therapy (76). In monotherapy T.Furosemide reduced SBP by 50 mmHg and T.Nifedipine and T.Metoprolol Reduced DBP by 20 mmHg, whereas in dual therapy Inj. furosemide, T.Metoprolol decreased mean SBP by 60 mmHg and DBP by 40 mmHg respectively.  Results showed that, triple drug therapy was most effective in reducing mean systolic (41.8-24%) and mean diastolic blood pressure (16.8-16.6%) and reduction of SBP by triple therapy was higher compared to other therapies.

    Conclusion: Combination therapy reduces both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to monotherapy. Triple drug therapy is more effective compared to dual and quadruple therapy. Pedal edema due to amlodipine is the most common ADR in both mono and multiple therapies. Combination therapy is more expensive than monotherapy, however triple therapy was most expensive compared to others.

  11. Study the pattern of use of antimicrobials in community acquired pneumonia Download Article

    Payalpreet, Harinder Singh, Vijay K. Sehgal, Anita K. Gupta,Vishal Chopra
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (69-76)
    • No of Downloads: 1161

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    Background: Pneumonia is a common illness having significant morbidity and mortality. Irrational use of antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia has led to antibiotic resistance, over prescribing and increased cost of treatment. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the trends of antimicrobial prescription in community acquired pneumonia.

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the aim of studying the pattern of use of antimicrobials in community acquired pneumonia. 

    Materials and Methods: All the antimicrobial containing prescriptions of community acquired pneumonia were monitored. Data from the 80 prescriptions was entered into data entry forms. The number of antimicrobials per prescription, various groups of antibiotics and combinations of antibiotics used for the treatment of community acquired pneumonia, route of administration of antibiotics, duration of antibiotic therapy and length of hospital stay in in-patients was analysed.

    Results:In the present study it was observed that community acquired pneumonia was most common in the age group of 42-60 years and the disease was more prevalent in males as compared to females. In the present study 58.75% were in-patients and 41.25% were out-patients. Study showed that 83.75% of the patients received the treatment for 7 days and 16.25% of the patients received the treatment for 14 days. For administration of antibiotics oral route was used in 42.5% of patients and intravenous route was used in 57.5% of patients. Azithromycin was most commonly used antibiotic and combination therapy was given in all the patients and none of the patient was treated with single antibiotic. In the present study most commonly used combination was amoxicillin-azithromycin given in 34 patients. Three antibiotics were given in about 47.5% of patients and two antibiotics were given in 52.5% of patients.

  12. ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF ACTIVITY OF TECOMA STANS LEAF EXTRACT Download Article

    Anil kumar reddy.P, Ch Rajendra Prasad, Srividya Jahnavi, N.Sriram
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (77-82)
    • No of Downloads: 1003

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    Herbal medicines offer vast scope for the successful treatment of urolithiasis. Although most remedies were herbal and proved useful, a systematic scientific evaluation has been reported for only few remedies. Tecoma stans a herbal formulation was claimed to be useful in the treatment of urinary stones. Toxicity study confirms that the therapeutic dose of Tecoma stans was 430 mg/kg. The antilithiatic effect of Tecoma stans was determined on lactose diet + ethylene glycol induced and ammonium chloride + ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in male albino wistar rats. The results obtained after 4 weeks of treatment for the urine estimation of calcium, oxalate, magnesium and protein were significant (p<0.01) in reducing the calculus when compared with the standard drug cystone (750 mg/kg) treated animals. Urine calcium oxalate crystals were also reduced in test drug treated and standard treated groups. These observations and results conclude that Tecoma stans herbal formulation possesses significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  13. A study on prevalence and evaluation of anemia among in-patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital Download Article

    V.Shivashankar, Muhammed Aslam V.P, Pooja K Salian, Simin Sabu Jacob, Sojan P Paul
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (83-86)
    • No of Downloads: 958

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    Anemia is a public health problem that affects populations of both developed and developing countries, with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development. It occurs at all stages of the life cycle. Thus, appropriate pharmacological measures have to be adopted for the better treatment and control of anemia. A prospective randomized interventional study was conducted among 146 anemic patients for six months. The Total Iron Deficit for each patient was calculated according to Ganzoni Formula. The WHO and TID results were compared by Chi Square test statistics. Iron Deficiency Anemia was found to be more prevalent (76.71%) in the study group. Patients in the male category were found to be more severely anemic and iron deficient than the female in the study group. WHO categorization of anemia reveals that majority of the patients was moderately anemic. The TID evaluation reveals majority of the study population had TID in the range of 1000-1500 mg. The comparison of WHO and TID categorization exhibited a high association (p=0.0) in our study. The drug utilization patterns reveal oral iron preparations were utilized more commonly. Patient iron requirements can be predicted by TID values and not by the Hb level alone, since weight is also an important parameter taken into consideration. Based on the TID values, the therapeutic plan can be worked out such that an increased cost of therapy is prevented and there is reduced risk of adverse events.

  14. Airway management in a patient with traumatic disfigured facial injury - A case report Download Article

    C.K.Swetha Ramani, Kala Balasubramanian, Carolin Vonmullai
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (87-94)
    • No of Downloads: 1021

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    Traumatic facial injuries usually presents with extremely disfigured appearances. Managing airway in these patients remain a significant challenge to the Anesthesiologist. A detailed assessment of extent and severity of facial injury and a careful way of formulating a proper airway management plan in the preoperative period will be essential for avoiding any major catastrophe during the Intraoperative and postoperative period. Advanced Trauma Life Support Protocol is utilised in evaluating the trauma patient. Only after securing airway, stabilizing the cervical spine, and restoring hemodynamic stability, the definitive treatment of the maxillofacial injury should be considered. A patent airway in the patient should be established immediately with the help of difficult airway cart. The anaesthetic technique should include rapid induction, maintenance with minimal physiological changes and rapid emergence. In procedures involving inter maxillary fixation, oral intubation is excluded and alternative routes of intubation should be planned.  Extubation requires an awake patient, who can maintain his airway and the emergence should be smooth. In this case, we report the airway management of a patient who had de-gloving and disfiguring facial soft tissue injury.

  15. A case study of dermatosclerosis with features of crest syndrome Download Article

    Dr.M Sureswara Reddy, Gangula Amareswara Reddy, P Venkata Ramana
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-100)
    • No of Downloads: 970

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    Systemic sclerosis (systemic scleroderma or SSc) is a chronic connective tissue disease of unknown etiology that causes widespread micro vascular damage and excessive deposition of collagen in the skin and internal organs, in particular GI tract, lung, heart, and kidney. We report the case of a 55 year old female patient who came to RIMS-GH, Kadapa complaints of cough, difficulty in swallowing, breathlessness since 2 weeks along with numbness of fingers. The patient had an ulcer on the right leg with white crystals; it shows the presence of calcinosis. Radiographic data showed bony erosion of the terminal phalanges and esophageal involvement, these findings indicates CREST syndrome. The biopsy report revealed it as scleroderma. The anti-nuclear antibodies and anti-topoisomerase I antibody tests were confirmed as diffuse cutaneous scleroderma. This case illustrates the clinical manifestations of a diffuse cutaneous scleroderma with CREST syndrome features.

  16. Introducing an evidence based medicine course to second year medical students - evaluating its effectiveness and student feedback Download Article

    Afzal Khan A.K, Harish Bagewadi, Mirshad PV
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (101-105)
    • No of Downloads: 943

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    Objectives: To study the effectiveness of Introducing an Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) course in the curriculum of Second Year Medical Students and to obtain their feedback regarding the same.

    Methods: 66 students consented and participated in the study. EBM was introduced as a series of 6 lectures of different topics including basic biostatistics and framing of clinical question. A couple of hands on sessions regarding efficient searching of Medline for evidence and critical appraisal of research studies were also conducted. As a part of the course students were asked to download an original research article and critically appraise it using a checklist provided to them. Fresno test of competence in EBM was used to assess EBM knowledge and skills before and after the course. Differences between pre and post test scores were statistically analyzed by chi square and Student t-test.

    Observations: The students showed significant improvement in their post test scores. The student feedback regarding the course was positive and encouraging. 57(86%) of the students felt that the course helped them in the understanding of the principles of EBM and that it also increased their ability to search for new information  more efficiently. 46(70%) of them agreed that EBM should be included in their regular MBBS curriculum.

  17. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of tramadol in male versus female patients suffering from pain Download Article

    Kiranpreet Kaur, Harinder Singh, Hardeep Singh Mann, Anjleen Kaur, Prabhsimran Singh
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (106-112)
    • No of Downloads: 973

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    Background : Gender difference exists both in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various drugs. So this study was designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of Tramadol in males versus female patients suffering from pain.

    Material and Methods : An open randomized parallel group study was conducted . 100 patients enrolled were 50 males and 50 females coming to Department of Orthopedics, in a tertiary care hospital.  All patients were divided into four groups of 25 each. Tramadol was prescribed in two doses of 50mg or 100mg BD for 7 to 14 days depending on severity (based on Visual Analogue Scale) and then patients were monitored and adverse drug reactions were noted in males and females. The data was analyzed statistically using T- test for efficacy and descriptive stats for assessing the safety.

    Results : Efficacy was assessed by comparing difference in mean score and mean percentage change in mean score. Comparing males and females taking 50 mg tramadol percentage improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). While comparing 50 mg and 100 mg percentage improvement in groups was statistically significant (p <0.05). Comparing groups males and females, percentage of adverse drug reaction in females was higher on each dose of tramadol. Percentage of adverse drug reaction in group taking 100mg was higher compared to group taking 50mg tramadol.

    ConclusionThere was no significant difference in efficacy of tramadol between males and females on same dose. Females experience more adverse drug reactions than males on same dose of tramadol and ADR increases with increase in dose.

  18. Review of various treatment strategy for rheumatoid arthritis Download Article

    Fatma Ali, Unnisa Begum Faiz, Nikhat Sara, Fatima Sara.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (113-118)
    • No of Downloads: 963

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    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder affecting  joints leading to limited range of motion affecting daily activities. Various drug therapies were used to preserve range of motion; joint function and to prevent systemic complications. But due to serious adverse effects of the drugs and limited improvement a \'Novel drug free implant\' is introduced to improve quality of life and reduce adverse effects of the drugs. This drug free implant works through electric stimulation of peripheral nerve as a treatment for immune disease. This article is  a review on assessing various drugs used to treat Rheumatoid arthritis comparing it\'s efficacy and advantages of \'Drug free implant\' over other drug therapy. It is assessment of various anti-rheumatic drugs related adverse effects and safety profile.

  19. Anti-obesity and anticoagulant activity of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L Download Article

    Thoutreddy Radhika, Raju Bairi, G. Mounika
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (119-125)
    • No of Downloads: 941

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    Aim                                                                                  

    To study the antiobesity and anticoagulant activity of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum  L.  (Fenugreek) in male wistar rats.

    Methods

    Trigonella foenum-graecum  L. was first extracted with ethanol and subjected to phytochemical analysis and its anti-obesity activity was studied in male wistar rats by feeding with cafeteria diet for 42 days in diet induced model and by administering a single intra peritoneal injection of Triton X-100 in chemical induced model. In diet induced model, weight of the animals was measured once in a week and parameters like total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL, VLDL, HDL levels, clotting time were measured on 43rd day. In chemical induced model, the above parameters were measured on 8th day.

    Results and Discussion

    Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phyosterols, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarin glycosides, proteins and tannins & phenolic compounds. Significant increase in body weight, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL levels and reduction in HDL levels and clotting time was seen in animals fed with cafeteria diet. Treatment with standard drug orlistat and fenugreek extract significantly suppressed the increase in body weight and normalized the lipid levels and prolonged the clotting time.

    Conclusion

    From the results, it could be concluded that the ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. had significant anti-obesity and anticoagulant activity by maintaining the normal levels of physical and biochemical parameters and by prolonging the clotting time.

  20. Poison management through telemedicine in rural area Download Article

    Faiz unnisa begum, Fatma Ali, Nikhat Sara, Md.Azharuddin Sulthan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (126-130)
    • No of Downloads: 899

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    Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies in order to provide clinical health care at a distance. It helps eliminate distance barriers and can improve access to medical services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities. It is also used to save lives in critical care and emergency situations. Although there were distant precursors to telemedicine, it is essentially a product of 20th century telecommunication and information technologies. These technologies permit communications between patient and medical staff with both convenience and fidelity, as well as the transmission of medical, imaging and health informatics data from one site to another. Early forms of telemedicine achieved with telephone and radio have been supplemented with video telephony, advanced diagnostic methods supported by distributed client/server applications, and additionally with telemedical devices to support in-home care delivery systems. These article mainly focus on use of telemedicine in rural areas for “PESTICIDES POISONING” OR “SNAKE POISONING”.“Here we have an extraordinarily cost effective, rapidly responsive medical service that offers significant benefits to large numbers of patients”. This is an initiative of telemedicine to device a sophisticated “POISON INFORMATION CENTRE” especially in RURAL areas and deliver treatment as soon as possible.

  21. Effect of serratiopetidaseon Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic and atherosclerotic rats Download Article

    Gudeppu Mounika, B. Chaitanya, Raju Bairi, T. Radhika.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (131-139)
    • No of Downloads: 934

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    Aim: To explore the therapeutic usefulness of the proteolytic enzyme Serratiopeptidase in the treatment of Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis.

    Materials & Methods: We observed the anti-atherosclerotic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Serratio peptidase in atherogenic diet (AD) and Triton X-100 induced male albino wistar rats (150-200g). Animals were separated randomly into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. Disease control, test groups and standard groups were administered with Triton X-100 (100mg/kg, i.p.) and fed with that of atherogenic diet for 21 days where as normal control rats were fed with normal diet. Test and standard groups were administered with Serratiopeptidase (10 mg/kg, p.o.low dose) and Fenofibrate (50mg/kg, p.o. high dose) subsequently for 21 days. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of serratiopeptidase on physical and serum biochemical parameters by comparing the treated group with disease and normal control for every 7 days. Statistical analysis was carried out using two way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test.

    Results:  Serratiopeptidase had shown a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the body weights and lipid levels such as LDL, VLDL, TGL, TC, Atherogenic index and shown a significant (p < 0.05) increase in HDL-C. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement was also observed in atherogenic index. The results were compared with the standard. Histopathology of coronary arteries indicated the significant reduction in the lesion size in test and standard groups when compared with disease control.

    Conclusion: Thus, it can be indicated that serratiopeptidase has a significant control in hyperlipidemic and atherosclerotic rats. The study can be further processed clinically as there is a need of a good anti-atherosclerotic & anti-hyperlipidemic drug without or less side effects.