Articles

  1. Pharmacological and phytochemical investigation of Cestrum nocturnum leaf extract for antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity Download Article

    R. S. Sahane, P. A. Wankhade, M. A.Shrungarpure
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (255-268)
    • No of Downloads: 1783

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    Background: Plant derivatives with purported hypoglycemic properties have been used in traditional medicine around the world. The Leaves of Cestrum nocturnum (Raat rani) were reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we investigated the phytochemical, pharmacological and acute toxicological properties of the extracts of Cestrum nocturnum leaves.

    Material and Methods: Antidiabetic effect of hydro alcoholic extract and saponin fraction of Cestrum nocturnumleaves were evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The hydro alcoholic extract 200, 400 mg/kg and saponin fraction 50, 100 mg/kg was administered orally to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for a period of three weeks. Various biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, lipids, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin and liver glycogen content were evaluated. These stated parameters in the diabetic rats were reverted back approximately near to normal after treatment with the respective higher dose of leaf extract and saponin fraction of Cestrum nocturnum. Histological examination of the pancreas from diabetic rats showed degenerative changes in β-cells; whereas treatment significantly reversed the histo architectural damage to the islets cells.

  2. Phytochemical screening and antiemetic activity of Lepidagatis cristata root extract Download Article

    Rachapalli Sowjanya Kumar Reddy, Battineni Jainendra Kumar, Vasudha Bakshi.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (269-272)
    • No of Downloads: 1546

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    Lepidagathis cristata root (Family: Acanthaceae) is an herb distributed in central and eastern peninsular India and used as bitter tonic in fevers and used in pneumonia, flu, mouth and lip infections. An earlier study was carried out on this plant has shown antifungal activity, immunosuppressant activity. Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is a common side effect of many cancer treatments. The development of effective antiemetic prophylaxis is one of the most significant steps forward in the area of supportive care. The potential of this extract as antiemetic activity may be due to the presence of phyto constituents like alkaloids and terpenoids and might be responsible for its activity. However, so far the antiemetic property of ethanol extract of Lepidagathis cristata root had not been carried out. Hence, in the present investigation extract of Lepidagathis cristata root was screened for antiemetic activity by using standard procedures. The results illustrated that the extracts of root have antiemetic potential comparable with that of Metoclopramide.

  3. Assessment of level of cognitive impairment among stroke patients Download Article

    Vyshnavi P.V., Sreelekha B.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (273-277)
    • No of Downloads: 1420

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    Background

    It was estimated that yearly 20 million people are affected with stroke, among them five million die. Cognitive impairment occurs in about two third of stroke survivors. Several studies reported that the impaired cognition hampers the level of patient role in his self-care and also a major determinant of caregivers role.

    Method

    A descriptive survey was carried out for the present study. The data were collected from 30 patients after explaining the nature of the study and obtaining informed consent from them.      Dr. Patrick Brook’s cognitive impairment test, which consists of six items, was used to assess the cognitive impairment among the patients.

    Results 

    The results showed that 21 (70%) patients had mild cognitive impairment at the time of discharge and nine (30%) patients had normal cognitive level.

    Conclusion

    Assessment of the level of cognitive impairment of stroke patients help the nurses to plan specific nursing intervention, teach home care management to the care givers focusing on individual patient needs.

  4. Evaluation of phytochemicals and fluroscent analysis of flower extract of Couroupita guianensis Aubl Download Article

    S.Sumathi, R.Anuradha.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (278-281)
    • No of Downloads: 1655

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    The present study was to investigate the presence of phytochemicals, the fluroescence characteristics of powdered drug in the flower of Couroupita guianensis. Phytochemical analysis and fluroscent analysis  has been studied using standard  procedures. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, protein and steroids in the flower extracts. In fluroscent analysis characteristic colour changes were observed with different chemical reagents in flower powder under visible light. Our findings provided evidence that alcoholic extracts of flower contain bioactive compounds and its justifies their use in the traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  5. Studies on the hydrobiological parameters and the distribution of nutrients in (grand anaicut and lower anaicut) the river cauvery, thanjavur, Tamil nadu, India Download Article

    R. Athiyaman and K. Rajendran
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (282-286)
    • No of Downloads: 1394

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    The present investigation on the hydrobiological and distribution of nutrients in various seasons at Grand Anaicut and Lower Anaicut (Stations I and II) reservoir of River Cauvery were thoroughly studied during July 2010 to June 2012. The physico-chemical parameters such as atmospheric and water temperature, pH, DO, alkalinity, nitrate, phosphate, turbidity, humidity and rainfall were showed significant seasonal variation, rainfall and humidity were found to be high during north east monsoon and low during summer. There was a slight seasonal variation noticed between atmospheric and water temperature, pH showed alkaline range throughout the study period. DO, alkalinity and humidity showed significant variation. The data were statistically analysed with one way ANOVA are presented. 

  6. Anti-diabetic activity of Jasminum trichotomum aerial parts methanolic extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats Download Article

    Garla Manasa, K. Sumathi, A. Suresh, N. Senthi Kumar
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (287-292)
    • No of Downloads: 1383

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    The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the methanolic extract of jasminum trichotomum aerial parts in albino wistar rat models. The methanolic extract of jasminum trichotomum aerial parts was prepared by using methanol 48 hrs in Soxhlet’s extraction process (continuous hot percolation). The extract was distilled by distillation process and concentrated. In oral dose 100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. A blood glucose level of all animals was determined at the 0, 7, 14 and 21 day by using one touch Glucometer by single drop method. The blood parameters and histopathological studies were done. The dosage of 100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract significantly decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The histopathological study has shown regeneration of β cells at both dose of extract. The obtained results have shown that the Jasminum trichotomum  aerial parts of methanolic extract shown that consist of the anti-diabetic activity present.

  7. Ebola virus disease - A comprehensive review Download Article

    Babin D Reejo, Jeeva James, Molly Mathew, Dilip Krishnan K, Manu Jose, P. Natarajan.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (293-300)
    • No of Downloads: 1469

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    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is caused by infection with Ebola virus. Ebola virus disease first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. Fruit bats are considered possible natural hosts for Ebola virus. Ebola virus enters the patient through mucous membranes, breaks in the skin, or parenterally. EVD is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. No FDA-approved vaccine or medicine is available for Ebola. Several vaccines are being developed and the two most advanced vaccines identified based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing an Ebola virus protein (VSV-EBOV) and recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus expressing an Ebola virus protein (ChAd-EBOV) – are currently being tested in humans for safety and efficacy and trials were started. Scientists are working on variety of vaccines and antiviral drugs for Ebola viruses. Increasing public awareness and prevention of Ebola virus disease (EVD) spreading are the presently needed essentials for the community.

  8. Study on quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus Download Article

    Sumitha.G, Sattanathan.K, Sambathkumar.R
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (301-311)
    • No of Downloads: 1482

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    Health-related QOL can be measured with generic measures that are intended to be applicable across different diseases.One of the most widely used generic instruments is the 36-item short form of the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (SF-36), [1] which was designed as a generic indicator of health status for use in population surveys and studies of health policy.[2]It was designed to be applicable to a wide range of conditions, and covers both physical and mental concepts.The study was done inErode Head Government Hospital. There were 200 patients were selected in this study and the study period was 10 months. For conducted vast literature survey about diabetes we obtained a wide range of information about the disease and other related risk factors. We prepared a questionnaire for to measure QOL.The study conclutedthat Diabetes Mellitus patients with depression scored lower HRQL and the male patient scored higher Health Related Quality of Life score than female. Diabetes Mellitus duration also may impact on the Quality of Life of diabetic patients.

  9. In vivo study excision of wound healing potential of herbal formulation Download Article

    Mohammed Wasiullah, A.Pandurangan, Vipin Saini, Aftab Ahmad, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Anoop Kumar, Munesh Mani
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (312-319)
    • No of Downloads: 1495

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    The present study has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Lygodium flexuosum leaves extract has properties that render it capable of promoting accelerated wound healing activity compared with the controls. The well-dried homogenous, free of dirt and foreign matter drug samples of leaves were subjected to grinding. In powder microscopy it was found that vessels are annular and thickened, trichomes are non glandular multicellular it also shows the presence of pollen grains, calcium oxalate crystals and starch grains which are irregular ovoid, the fragments of cork, which are present to a greater extent; the cells are polygonal in surface view and have thin, lignified walls; the outer layers are filled with granular contents. The coarse powder of leaves of “Lygodium flexuosum” drug was successively extracted separately beginning with non-polar and gradually proceeding to polar solvents using soxhlet apparatus except in aqueous extraction.

  10. Literary approach to Annona muricata and its role in cancer- A review Download Article

    Dr.AmitSwarnakar.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (320-327)
    • No of Downloads: 3139

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    Annona muricata   L. belongs to the family of Annonaceae has a wide spread pantropical distribution and has been pridely known as corossol. Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, anti-microbial, cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from the defatted seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple) were tested on different human tumour cell lines for antitumoural activity. While organic and aqueous extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells, they failed to do so in COLO-205 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and K-562 cells with organic and aqueous extracts resulted in nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced intracellular glutathione levels. In addition down regulation of Bcl-2 and PS externalization by Annexin-V staining suggested induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells by both the extracts through oxidative stress. On the contrary, COLO-205 cells showed only PS externalization but no change in ROS and glutathione levels. These observations suggest that the induction of apoptosis by A. Squamosa extracts can be selective for certain types of cancerous cells.

  11. Review on non -pharmacological treatment for type-2 diabetes mellitus Download Article

    Kameswaran.R, SambathKumar. R, Sarah.Y
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (328-334)
    • No of Downloads: 1439

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    This study reviewed the research reports dealing with non- pharmacologic interventions aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes including diet and physical activity, for the prevention of Type-2DM.Lifestyle interventions reduce the rate of progression to type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance. People with impaired glucose tolerance have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and consequently many trials of interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes have focused on such individuals. Lifestyle interventions seem to be at least as effective as drug treatment. Exercise is perceived to be beneficial for glycemic control and weight loss in patients with type-2 DM. clinical trials on the effects of exercise in patients with type-2DM have had small sample sizes and conflicting results. India has the second largest diabetic population (61 million) and tobacco users (275 million) in the world.

  12. Pharmacological Approaches and Management of Brain Stroke Download Article

    Parihar Lalit, Kumar Sokindra, Singh Preeti, Gupta Ramji
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (335-348)
    • No of Downloads: 1405

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    Stroke is a common health problem in present days which is identified by the symptoms including face drooping, speech difficulty, sudden numbness, and sudden trouble in vision, loss of balance or coordination, severe headache. The epidemiological studies have shown about 750,000 people have stroke per year in which 80% have ischemic stroke and remaining 20% have hemorrhagic stroke but there are very few treatments available in present that can treat stroke and their deformities. The rate of morbidity and mortality is higher in stroke and it is 4th leading cause in US and 3rd one in developing countries. Hence a good pharmacological management is required for the better treatment and recovery from stroke. The pharmacological management includes use of thrombolytics, antiplatelet therapy, hypolipedaemics, antihypertensive, antioxidants, clot disruption technique, rehabilitation technique and their combinations such as clopidogrel + aspirin, Aspirin + dipyridamole, telmisartan + ramipril, melatonin + tpa, IgG–glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and IgG– tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). Therefore, a variety of combinational studies are required for the more beneficial outcomes in the future.

  13. A Review on development of anti cancer drugs targeting cancer stem like cells Download Article

    V Hrishi, V Sekar, R Sambathkumar.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (349-357)
    • No of Downloads: 1399

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    The existence of subpopulations of cells with self-renewing capacity that are responsible for tumour maintenance, chemo resistance and metastasis, called cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) has been demonstrated in a wide variety of solid and hematopoietic malignancies and has attracted a great attention as novel cellular targets for anticancer therapy1. Now cancer stem cells are considered as the hallmarks of the cancer. Various pharmaceuticals have started to identify several cancer stem cells and drugs which are effective to hit it. But screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumour cell populations and their relative instability in culture3,4. Even though certain compounds have been discovered as a targeted therapy such as salinomycin. From various researches it has been found out that salinomycin treatment results in the loss of expression of breast CSC genes11,12. Since conventional therapies have been designed to target proliferating cells, slow growing CSCs may be relatively more resistant than faster growing tumour bulk. Cancer stem cells resistance to standard chemotherapeutics has been reported in human leukemia, malignant melanoma, brain, breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Cancer stem cells radio resistance has been reported in brain and breast cancers15, 26. Thus, if CSCs are selectively targeted by new stem line therapeutics, tumour size should be greatly reduced. This study is a comprehensive review of the various approaches to target the cancer stem cells and their effectiveness.

  14. Analysis of the current trend in the prescription of anti-hypertensive drugs among pregnant females in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Sagar B Bhagat, Ketaki C Patil.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (358-365)
    • No of Downloads: 1509

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    Background

    Hypertensive disorders are the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in India and worldwide, as it is among the most common of all medical complications in pregnancy.

    Material & Methods

    A single centric, observational, cross-sectional, non-randomized study conducted in the department of pharmacology in collaboration with Antenatal care (ANC) Outpatient department of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

    Results

    Among the 116 hypertensive patients, 108 patients participated in the study. Age distribution showed majority of the participants, 101 (93.51%) were in the reproductive age group i.e. 20-35 years. Trimester wise distribution of the participants showed more than half of the participants, 57 (52.77%) were in third trimester of their term. 62 (57.40%) participants were diagnosed as mild hypertensive and 46 (42.59%) as severe. Gestational hypertension was the most common of all the hypertensive disorder among the study participant. Majority of the patients, 73(67.59%), were preferred for monotherapy.  Beta blocker was the preferred class as a monotherapy among the pregnant females followed by centrally acting anti-hypertensive drugs. Labetolol was the preferred antihypertensive followed by centrally acting Methyl dopa. Combination of two antihypertensive drugs was given to 12 participants and combination of anti hypertensive along with anticonvulsants was preferred in 23 participants. Combination of two drugs was used in 19 (17.59%) participants and combination of three drugs was used in 16 (14.81%) participants in the treatment of hypertension.

    Conclusion: Hypertension is one of the most common problems encountered in pregnancy. Monotherapy was preferred as a treatment of choice and future study should include detailed outcomes of risk and benefit for both the mother and baby.

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Merremia turpethum Download Article

    Dr.Shankara sharma, N.Sriram.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (366-373)
    • No of Downloads: 1482

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    The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of the methonalic extract of Merremiaturpethum(MEMT) in Wistar albino rats.  Protective action of MEEC was evaluated using animal model of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (2 g/kg). Liver maker enzymes were assayed in serum and antioxidant status was assessed in liver tissue. Histopathology was also studied. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferace (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were increased and the levels of total protein were decreased in acetaminophen treated rats. The potency of methanol extract of the plant showed rich antioxidant properties.From this study it can be concluded that the (MEMT) showed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant action.

  16. Aerobic Exercises: To trim down menstrual distress among adolescent girls Download Article

    Soni.T.K, G. Sumathi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (374-381)
    • No of Downloads: 1438

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    Menstrual distress is a hindrance that curtails the quality of life, especially among the adolescent period where the effects are at its peak which resolves as they ovulate progressively. The purpose is to reduce the menstrual distress among adolescent girls by motivating them to rely on aerobic exercises as a routine practice to cope up with monthly menstrual issues. A quantitative study was conducted with the objectives to assess the effectiveness of aerobic exercises when instructed a week prior to menstrual cycle on the level of menstrual distress among adolescent girls between the age group of 18 and 20 years. Sample size of 60 adolescent girls were selected with 30 each in study and control group by stratified sampling. The study findings revealed that the mean score of menstrual distress after aerobic exercises were (62.63) in posttest 1 (on the 2nd menstrual day) and (40.77) in posttest 2 (on 5th menstrual day) which was lesser than the score before aerobic exercises (84.10). This clearly signifies a decrease in menstrual distress among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhoea, who practices regular aerobic exercises. There was no significant association of menstrual distress and selected demographic variables, but there was an association found between menstrual distress and duration of menstrual flow at the level of (p< 0.05).

  17. A questionnaire based study of pharmacology curriculum in undergraduate students Download Article

    Vineeta Sawhney, Mohammad Younis Bhat, Samina Farhat
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (382-386)
    • No of Downloads: 1640

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    Pharmacology, a branch of medicine is progressing by leaps and bounds, but medical students decry the way it is taught, its examinations, its usefulness when they practice. Hence to assess the students attitude, perception and feedback on teaching – second year mbbs students (127 in number) were included. They were administered a pre-validated questionnaire containing – questions based on internationally accepted “Likert Scale”. Analysis was based on median score, and percentage wise distribution of the various parameters used in the questionnaire. Students were in favour of many changes in pharmacology like learning pharmacology simultaneously with clinical condition to correlate drug with diseases and teaching some topics during prefinal or final year to achieve the said objective, preferring case studies and treatment as part of regular teaching schedule, incorporation of clinically oriented lectures, preferring partial handouts before lectures and incorporation of MCQS in rating evaluation methods for examination.