Articles

  1. Neurological adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs Download Article

    M Palaniappan, SK Srinivasamurthy, B Dubashi, SA Dhkar, A Chandrasekaran.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (152-157)
    • No of Downloads: 1702

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    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the neurological adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs that were reported to adverse drug reaction monitoring centre.

    Methods:The entire neurological adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported with anticancer drugs, received through spontaneous reporting system and active surveillance method from January 2012 to September 2013 were analyzed for demographic profile, ADR pattern, severity and causality assessment.

    Results: During the study period, a total of 1418 anticancer drug related ADRs were obtained from 1076 patients; among them 84 (5.9%) reactions were neurological. Totally 77 patients developed 84 neurological ADRs. Among them 42 were males (54.5%) and 35 were females (45.5%). CAPOX (Capecitabine and oxaliplatin) was the leading drug regimen among agents causing neurological ADRs accounting for 15.5%. The most frequently reported ADR was neuropathy (72.6%). According to WHO causality assessment of ADRs, majority of the reports come under possible (89.6%) category. Hartwig severity scale showed that 57.1% of the reactions were moderately severe.

    Conclusion: The frequency of neurological adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs obtained was found to be 5.9%. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin regimen is the major causative agent among the anticancer drugs for neurological ADRs. Our study provided the analysis of neurological ADRs occurring due to anticancer agents.

    Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, anticancer drugs, Neurological, neurotoxicity. 

  2. Effect of Ruta graveolens on pentylenetetrazol and electrically induced convulsions in albino mice Download Article

    Shaban E.A.Saad, Syed S.Ahmed, Suher.M.Aburawi, Abdurraouf M.M.Khalf, Mohamed N.El-Attug, Abdusalaam Sughir, Shukri M.O.Al-Sharif
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (158-162)
    • No of Downloads: 1515

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    Ruta graveolens is a plant commonly found in north Africa and south Europe. It is reported  that Ruta graveolensis used traditionally for children epilepsy. The chemically induced convulsion by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) is commonly used for the investigation of anti-epileptic effects of drugs. Ruta graveolens alcoholic extract residue (whole plant) was tested against PTZ and electrically induced convulsions in albino mice. The supramaximal electroshock (MES) method was applied in this study as electrically induced convulsion model; it is a simple model of generalized or partial seizures. Two concentrations of alcoholic extract were used (5 and 10%) orally. The treated animals showed significant inhibition of straub tail reaction, myoclonic jerks, clonic convulsions, final tonic extensor spasm and a significant protection against death (100% protection at 10% w/v concentration). The results indicated that Ruta graveolens contains compound(s) capable to inhibit convulsions.

  3. Anticancer potential of Polyalthia longifolia fruits in DEN/PB induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats Download Article

    A.J.M.Christina, Jayaraman Rajangam, Bibhu Prasad Panda.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (163-168)
    • No of Downloads: 1303

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    This study was designed to evaluate the anticancer potential of methanolic extract of fruits of Polyalthia longifolia(MEFPL)in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital (PB) promoted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in male albinoWistarrats.A single intraperitoneal injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN,200 mg/kg) was administered. After 14 days, phenobarbital was given orally for up to 14 weeks to promotethe liver cancer. The hepatocarcinomainduced rats were treated with MEFPL (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 days. After the experimental period, the liver was examined for the number and size of nodules present. Also the serumlevel of tumour marker, Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) and DNA and RNA in liverwere assessed. The number of nodules in liver, serumAlpha fetoprotein, DNA and RNA content in liver were reduced by the extract. Histopathology of liver revealed improvement in the architecture that was damaged by DEN and PB. To conclude, results of present study strongly support the anticancer potential of MEFPL against DEN/PB induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

     
  4. Ofloxacin induced multiple fixed drug eruptions – A case report Download Article

    Sai priya marrapu, Mounika sanaka, Shaik faizan ali, Shaik shafiya, Raghu ram.v, Rama rao Nadendla.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (169-172)
    • No of Downloads: 1496

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    Adverse drug reactions are the major hazards of modern medicine. Among all these, cutaneous drug reactions are given utmost importance as they are sometimes life threatening. Ofloxacin is a first generation floroquinolone and these class of drugs can cause Fixed drug eruption , which is a adverse reaction , is commonly seen with antimicrobials , analgesics and anticonvulsants etc. In the pathogenesis intraepidermal CD8+ T cells play a major role and may   represent double-edged swords of the skin immune system with protective and destructive capacity. Here we report a case of a 38 year old female patient with Multiple Fixed Drug Eruptions due to Ofloxacin administration. 

  5. Availability of essential medicines and inventory management practice in primary public health facilities of gondar town, north west ethiopia. Download Article

    Mulugeta Fentie, Addisie Fenta, Firehiwot Moges, Habtam Oumer, Sintayehu Belay, Yeheyes Sebhat, Tadele Atinafu, Taddese Mekonnen, Jeevanandham Somasundaram
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (173-178)
    • No of Downloads: 1495

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    Accessing affordable essential medicines is an important factor to address patients’ satisfaction and increase their health seeking behavior. The objective of the present study was to assess the essential medicines availability and inventory management practices in public primary health facilities of Gondar town, Ethiopia. Twenty six essential medicines were selected as tracer medicines based on the top ten diseases of the study area. Availability of the tracer essential medicines at the time of the survey was assessed. The six months essential medicines availability, stock out period and inventory management practice of the pharmacy units of the health facilities was also reviewed. The overall average availability of essential medicines was 91%. The mean duration of stock out of tracer medicines of the health facilities in the six months period was 30.5 days. The average frequency of stock out was 0.8 over the six months period.  The discrepancy between physical count and stock record count of essential medicines among the surveyed health facilities ranged from 0% to about 60%. The total loss of money due to medicines expiry over six months period was 1337.6 USD from the six health facilities. Over all, availability of tracer essential medicines at data collection period was good. However, stock out of essential medicines in the six months period was high, and inventory management problems were observed in most of the health facilities surveyed.

  6. Effects of Vitamin D on Blood Pressure: Vitamin D act as Anti Hypertensive agent Download Article

    Ali Raza Memon, Keenjhar Rani, Hina Riaz, Nasreen Qazi, Saira Baloch
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (179-183)
    • No of Downloads: 1368

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    Aim

    The purpose of this study to rule out the role of vitamin D in hypertensive patients.

    Methodology

    Total 100 hypertensive patients were selected with same age and same disease criteria, they were divided in to two groups; group A & B, 50 patients in each group. Group A patients were given antihypertensive drugs and group B patients were given antihypertensive drugs along with vitamin D orally in tablet form.

    Results

    Blood pressure readings were recorded on 1stday of visit then after 15 days & on 45 days interval of therapy. It was observed that there was significantly decline (p< 0.05) in B.P in those patients who were given antihypertensive drugs along with regularly vitamin D therapy.

    Conclusion

    From this study we concluded that vitamin D not only the vitamin or hormone but also act like antihypertensive agent.

  7. Potential use of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against urinary tract pathogenic bacteria Download Article

    Nur Saeida B, Hasmah A,Wan Nor Amilah WAW
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (184-191)
    • No of Downloads: 1546

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    Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used by Malaysian women as a remedy after childbirth and also to prevent various infections including urinary tract infection (UTI). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitroantibacterial activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against several bacterial pathogens of the urinary tract. Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were screened against 4 Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 49907, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 27336, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and 4 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 1706, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12453 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132) using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the two-fold serial micro dilution technique at concentrations ranging from 0.01 mg/ml to 10 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by sub culturing the wells which showed no turbidity after overnight incubation at 37°Con the agar plate. Both extracts displayed similar inhibitory effects against each tested bacteria at a concentration of 5 mg/disc except for P. vulgarisE. coli and K. pneumoniae. The extracts were also considered bactericidal against the tested bacteria (undetermined for S. pneumoniae) based on calculated MBC/MIC ratio. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the major compound in both extracts was pyrogallol. These data suggested that Q. infectoria galls are potentially effective as an antibacterial agent for the prevention and treatment of UTI.

  8. Niosomes: An excellent tool for drug delivery Download Article

    Birendra Kumar, Chandraprakash Dwivedi, Sandip Prasad Tiwari, Trilochan Satapathy, Rajani yadav , Ghanshyam Sahu, Amit Roy.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (192-204)
    • No of Downloads: 1504

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    The ideal drug delivery system delivers drug at rate dictated by the need of the body over the period of treatment and it channels the active entity solely to the site of action.  Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles obtained on hydration of synthetic nonionic surfactants, with or without incorporation of cholesterol or other lipids. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Niosomes are promising vehicle for drug delivery and being non-ionic, it is less toxic and improves the therapeutic index of drug by restricting its action to target cells. This systemic review article deals with preparation methods, characterizations, factors affecting release kinetic, advantages, and applications of niosomes.

  9. Assessment of the changes in some diagnostics enzymes in fish Gambusia affinis treated with pesticide chlorpyrifos Download Article

    Neelam Sharma
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (205-210)
    • No of Downloads: 1456

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    The acute toxicity of an organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos on enzyme activities of fish Gambusia affinis was evaluated under statistic conditions. The fish is constantly exposed to pesticides, which are used extensively to control agricultural pests. Evaluation of toxic effect of chlorpyrifos on fish was carried out. Effect of sub lethal (LC50), 1/3rd and 1/10th LC50 concentrations of chlorpyrifos at 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure was carried out in the sensitive organs such as liver. An alteration in the Acid phosphatase (ACP), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Adenosine triphosphatase enzyme (ATPase) was carried out. The enzyme ACP, ALP and LDH was elevated throughout the experimented period and the ATPase activity was inhibited along the experimental period at three different concentrations of chlorpyrifos.

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Hedychium coronarium linn., rhizome in alloxan induced diabetes in rat model Download Article

    Pranitha.K, Shalini.K, Pratibha.M, Suneha.S.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (211-221)
    • No of Downloads: 1562

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    Purpose  

    To study the Hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic  extract  of  Hedychium  coronarium linn., rhizome  in Alloxan  induced  diabetes  in  rat  model.

    Methods

    The preliminary photochemical studies were carried out on the crude extract which was prepared and the various chemical constituents present in the crude extract were evaluated. Acute Toxicity studies as per OECD-23 guidelines to determine the safety doses of the root extract was carried out on mail wistar strain of Albino rats. The various factors such as body weight, feed intake, blood glucose, serum insulin etc were regularly studied and evaluated.

    Results

    The hypoglycemic effect of the ethanolic extract of Hedychium coronarium linn. Rhizome was studied on the various factors such as body weight, blood glucose levels etc of the alloxan induced diabetic rat model.

    Conclusion

    In present study administration of Hedychium coronarium rhizome extract produced a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum insulin, serum catalase and haemoglobin in alloxan induced rats. However, it seems promising that if these data will be validated in the future clinical trials, Hedychium coronarium rhizome extract may offer an alternative treatment for diabetes.

  11. Brief overview on pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy Download Article

    Harshada Langote, Vivek Mishra.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (222-230)
    • No of Downloads: 1268

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    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious condition affecting the patients worldwide suffering from diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in diabetic patients. About 25–40% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 5–40% of patients with type 2 diabetes are more predisposed to develop diabetic kidney disease. The current review focuses on the current statistical scenario of diabetic nephropathy, its causes and the current treatment which is available for the treatment of this serious condition. 

  12. Study of antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance of pathogens isolated from postoperative wound infection Download Article

    R.T.Saravanakumar, Dr.V.R.Baskaran, Dr.P.K.Manna, Dr.G.P.Mohanta
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (231-236)
    • No of Downloads: 1461

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    Surgical site infection are the third most common type of healthcare acquired infections in hospitals. SSI are the most common nosocomial infection in surgical patients, contributing to perioperative morbidity, prolonged postoperative hospital length of stay, and increased hospital costs. Emergent of pathogens and rapid growth of multi-drug resistance demands periodic review of isolation patterns and its sensitivity. Hence, the present study was aimed to study the antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance of some pathogens isolated from postoperative wound infection. The study was carried out in a 1400 bedded multi-specialty tertiary care teaching hospital attached to Annamalai University. Clinical specimens were collected from the patient and cultured in the appropriate media. Isolated colonies were subjected to gram staining technique and biochemical tests for identification. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were carried out on isolated and identified colonies using commercially prepared antibiotic sensitivity disc using Kirby-Bauer method. Totally 341 surgeries were carried out during the study period and about 46 surgical site infection were observed. Study results showed the following (a) Of all pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more prevalent whereas, Klebsiella and Escherichia coli were moderately prevalent and Proteus mirabilis was least prevalent, (c) Of all antibiotics, Amikacin was sensitive to all pathogens in the study with low resistance profile.
  13. The use of electric current – Iontophoresis for transcutaneous drug delivery – Novel drug delivery system (NDDS) Download Article

    Mohammad Younis Bhat, Samina Farhat, Vineeta Sawhney, ShabirAhmd Mir
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (237-245)
    • No of Downloads: 1585

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    The method by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range within which maximum benefit is delivered, and concentrations above or below this range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all. On the other hand, the very slow progress in the efficacy of the treatment of severe diseases, has suggested a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to the targets in tissues with new ideas on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, bio recognition, and efficacy of drugs. These new strategies often called drug delivery system (DDS) are based on interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bio conjugate chemistry, and molecular biology and have generated much attention during the last decades. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pas metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The rationale behind using these techniques is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs to increase the systemic delivery with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability.

  14. Pharmacovigilance: The conscientious today for safe tomorrow Download Article

    Esmail O Elakesh, Shukri MO Al-Sharif
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (246-254)
    • No of Downloads: 1336

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    Pharmacovigilance is the Science and activity relating to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible medicine-related problems. There are guidelines and regulations from the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science (CIOMS), the European Medicines Agency, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other that focus on pre-clinical, pre-marketing and post marketing safety evaluations.The roles of Pharmacist actually have and could have in collecting reports of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and more widely in Pharmacovigilance. In this review, several ways are mentioned in which the pharmacist, both the community pharmacist and the hospital pharmacist, can contribute to the safe use of drug. In addition to their responsibilities regarding drug dispensing and compliance, they can have a substantial role in ADR reporting.