Articles

  1. Anti-Ulcer activity of Simarouba glauca against Ethanol and Indomethacin induced ulcer in rats Download Article

    Dr.Shankara sharma, N.Sriram.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (85-89)
    • No of Downloads: 1477

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    Simarouba glauca a member of the Simaroubaceae family, is used in antimicrobial and insecticidal activity, antidysentric, antiherpetic, antihelminthic and antiprotozoal activities, but according to the best of our knowledge there is no scientific detailed report on antioxidant, haemolytic and thrombolytic activities. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Chloroform Extract of Simarouba glauca (CSG) extract in albino rats. No toxicity of extract up to 2000 mg/kg body weight orally as per OECD guidelines No.423. CSG at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally was administered to evaluate anti-ulcer activity by using Ethanol and indomethacin, induced gastric ulcer models in Albino rats. Chloroform extract of Simarouba glaucadose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions, causing 82.63 % protection at 400 mg/kg, and 53.48 % protection at 200 mg/kg, CSG dose dependent inhibition in indomethacin induced gastric lesions, causing 62.65 % protection at 400 mg/kg and 54.86 % protection at 200 mg/kg, All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that Chloroform Extract of the leaves of Simarouba glauca was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defense in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent.

  2. Polyherbal Formulation Development for Anti-asthmatic activity Download Article

    Manimaran Sellappan, Hariharan Ponnambalam.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (90-96)
    • No of Downloads: 2578

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    The aim of the present work is to develop and standardize the herbal formulations for asthma using well documented herbs. Three herbs selected for this work namely Tylophora indicaTephrosia purpurea and Vitex negundo based on the reported antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory activity. All the three plants were collected, authenticated and extracted with suitable solvents as per the literature. The ash values and extractive values were carried out for the selected plants and reported. Commercial extracts of the same plant were procured from Garlico Herbal Concentrate, MP, India with certificate of analysis for comparative studies. Two tablet formulations were prepared using in-house and commercial extracts and one capsule formulation was prepared by using commercial extracts. All the three formulations were subjected to various physical evaluations like friability, hardness, disintegration time and weight variation test and the results are complies as per the Pharmacopoeia standards. The anti-asthmatic activity was carried out for all the formulations and found that the all the formulations showed significant activity when compared to standard drug Chlorpheniramine maleate. Stability and clinical studies to be carried out in future to confirm the quality and efficacy of the product. 

  3. GC-MS evaluation of Fatty acid constituents from various tissues of Macrobrachium scabriculum Download Article

    R.Athiyaman, K.Rajendran.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (97-101)
    • No of Downloads: 1652

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    Macrobrachium scabriculum is a tastiest freshwater prawn belongs to the family Palaemonidae available throughout the year in the river Cauvery. The present study deals with the extraction and GC-MS analysis of fatty acid constituents from various tissues of prawn, such as haemolymph, muscle tissue, gonad and hepatopancreas. The result of the present study reveals that there were 14 types of bioactive components have been identified in GC-MSanalysis based on retention time, molecular formula, molecular weight and peak area. The major components such as 9-Octadecenal (5.78%), 7,11-hexa decadienal (3.77%), Methylsalicylate (3.66%), Oxirane tetradecyl (2.14%), 3,5-methyl-5-hexane-3-1 (1.02%) and heptanoic acid 9-decen-1 olester (1.01%) and some minor components were also identified. Among the total fatty acid content polyunsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids showed variations among the tissue. 

  4. Anti-ulcer activity on cold stress induced ulcerative rats with column chromatographically isolated Ceiba pentandra flavonoids Download Article

    G.Madhukumar, A.Annapoorna, S.Khadeerzubair, Bhargava Avadhanam.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (102-107)
    • No of Downloads: 1486

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    This study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves on experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were pre-treated with varied doses of the extract and reference drug pantoprazole. Ulcer was induced in the animals by fasting them for 12 hours and by Cold Stress Induced Ulceration. A total of 20 rats were divided into four groups of five animals, each  used for each assay.Histological studies of the gastric wall of the ulcer- induced rats were carried out. Mean ulcer index along with the percentage of ulcer inhibition by the extract and drugs were calculated for each group. Ceiba pentandra produced a significant dose dependent inhibition of gastric lesions in Cold Stress Induced ulcers evidenced by the reduced ulcer index of the treated groups. Histological examination of the gastric wall of the control rats revealed severe damage of the gastric mucosa, haemorrhages, along with oedema and leucocyte infiltration of sub-mucosal layer while the Ceiba pentandraextract-treated rats showed little damage of the gastric mucosa. These results showed that Ceiba pentandrapossess ulcer protective properties against experimentally induced ulcers and validates its traditional use in the treatment of stomach pain and ulcer.

  5. Role of clinical pharmacist in prevalence of anemia Download Article

    B.Srinivas Teja, T.Tejaswi, SK.Shafiya, Ramarao Nadendla.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (108-111)
    • No of Downloads: 1702

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    Anaemia is a major public health problem in developing countries like India and is especially seen among women of childbearing age, during pregnancy and lactation. Nearly two-thirds of pregnant and one-half of non-pregnant women in developing countries have anaemia, which increases the risk of maternal and foetal mortality and morbidity.

    Objective

    To study the prevalence of anaemia among female population.

    Materials and Methods

    A total of 400 prescriptions were taken for a period of 3 months. Lab data from presription forms were taken in the study to know Hb levels. The data was collected in a self administered data collection form.

    Results

    A high prevalence (64%) of anaemia (Hb<11g/dl) was observed. The prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher in those aged ≥ 20 years.  Significant association was found with woman’s age, parity, educational and socio-economic status. However, family type and birth interval were not significantly associated with anaemia. Among the 320 prescriptions 82 were in the teenage (15-20) , 178were the middle aged (20-30) and 60 were the above middle age (>30).

    Conclusion

    There is an urgent need to create awareness by the pharmacists by patient councelling among female population about the complications associated with anaemia particularly in pregnancy and menstrual cycles.

  6. Study of invitro antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial activity of Clausena anisata (Willd). Hook (Rutaceae) leaf extracts Download Article

    Arsia Tarnam Y, Nargis Begum T, Deepa N.S.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (112-125)
    • No of Downloads: 1807

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    Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook of family Rutaceae, is a deciduous shrub or small tree that contains a wide array of compounds exhibiting diverse range of bioactivity. Leaf extracts are traditionallly used as effective remedies for worms infections, respiratory ailments, hypertension, malaria, fever, rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, headaches, pains, toothaches, convulsions. It has antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal, and antidiabetic activities. The present study has been undertaken to find out the phytochemical, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. Leaf was subjected to successive extraction using aqueous, alcohol, acetone, ethylacetate+chloroform and hexane to obtain the respective extracts. DPPH free radical Scavenging method was used for antioxidant activity test. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook showed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, carbohydrates, saponnin, tannin, coumarin, proteins and aminoacids.  Highest Scavenging was observed with leaf extracts of ethylacetate+chloroform (74.1%), acetone (74%), aqueous (70.8%) followed by hexane (67.1%) and alcohol (55.1%) at 100mg/ml. Antibacterial activity of ethylacetate+Chloroform extract was higher for cornybacterium and Proteus with 43mm zone of inhibition and for S.epidermis with 32mm zone of inhibition. It was found that the percentage increase of the rate of uptake of glucose into yeast cells was linear in different glucose concentrations used. The aqueous and alcohol leaf extracts of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook showed the maximum increase in 10mM glucose concentration i.e. 95% and 95.3% at 2000 µg/ml. The alcohol, aqueous and acetone  extracts of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook showed appreciable (>20%) enzyme inhibitory activity against human urinary alpha amylase followed by hexane (3.4%) and ethylacetate+chloroform extracts (8.1%).

  7. Antispasmodic activity of Calotropis Procera leaf extract - An invitro study in rat colon Download Article

    Jagadeesh K, Shreenivas P Revankar, Jagadeesh S C.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (126-129)
    • No of Downloads: 1909

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    Calotropis procera has number of medicinal importance as it contains a number of active constituents like cardiac glycosides, terpenes, tannins flavinoids etc. it has also been found to have antispasmodic property. Therefore the present work was undertaken to evaluate the antispasmodic effect on different isolated tissues. Invitro models: isolated rat colon by using bioassay techniques.In contrast to the findings of c.procera ethnolic extract on rat colon produced antispasmodic effect on the gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Invitro studies of rat colon the ethnolic extract of c.procera leaves of 10 mg/ml was added individually and along with acetylcholine,5-HT  and carbachol produced contraction was inhibited by this crude extract(30%, 31%, 81.56%, .89.54% 82%, and 56.25%, 25.71%, 30.43%, 53.84%).hence extract showed excellent antispasmodic activity.

  8. Translational Pharmacology: New approach of drug discovery Download Article

    Deepak K. Bharati, Bharat V. Dhokchawle, Savita J. Tauro, Swati S. Rawat.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (130-135)
    • No of Downloads: 1737

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    Increasingly, the field is recognizing the need to enable a closer collaboration of industry and academia to create a more efficient system for developing new drugs. In parallel with this, the world of drug discovery has seen the emergence of translational research as an alternative approach to the creation of new drugs, and there is growing support for the claim that this strategy may provide solutions to some of the woes of the pharmaceutical industry. Translational medicine and translational pharmacology have become terms increasingly used to describe the focus of applied pharmacological research to ultimately help patients. Yet, the number of effective medicines reaching the approval stage continues to decline. Drug discovery represents the first step in the creation of new drugs, and takes place in academic institutions, biotech companies, and large pharmaceutical corporations. With the rise of translational research these relationships are shifting and new hubs are emerging, as key players seek to pool the expertise necessary to generate new therapies by linking laboratory discoveries directly to unmet clinical needs.

  9. Ricinus Communis (Castor): An overview Download Article

    Padma laxmikant ladda, Rupali bhimashankar kamthane
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (136-144)
    • No of Downloads: 2162

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    Ricinus communis Linn.  commonly called as castor belonging to family Euphorbiaceae found throughout India, mostly growing wild on waste land and also cultivated for its oil seeds. Castor is a perennial evergreen shrub. The Sanskrit name erandah describes the property of the drug to dispel diseases. It is native to the Ethiopian region of tropical East Africa. Castor bean has been introduced and is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world, frequently appearing spontaneously. The leaves contain isoquercetin 2, 5-dihydroxy benzoic acid and epicatechin. The castor oil consists principally of ricinoleic acid with only small amounts of dihydroxystearic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids. It used in treatment of rheumatic arthritis, paralysis; epilepsy; distention of the uterus. Castor-oil is a cathartic and has labor-inducing properties. Ricinoleic acid has served in contraceptive jellies. It is considered as a reputed remedy for all kinds of rheumatic affections. Used regularly as hair oil, it helps for growth of the hair and cure dandruff.  This plant is reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, purgative, lubricant, anticancer and antitubercular activities. The leaves (aqueous extract) exhibited 100% ovicidal and larvicidal activity against mosquito larvae.  It is also used as a lubricant and for lighting and as an ingredient in fuels for precision engines. The oil is used in coating fabrics and other protective coverings, in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants, transparent typewriter and printing inks. It should also not be used when there is abdominal pain or intestinal infections such as appendicitis, enteritis or inflammation of the small intestine and peritonitis.

  10. Assessment of self-medication among rural village population in a health screening and patient counseling campaign Download Article

    Amareswara Reddy Gangula, Divyaja M, Gowthami Reddy V, Siva Kumar Reddy K, Samjeeva Kumar E.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (145-151)
    • No of Downloads: 1659

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    Objective 

    The study aims at identifying self-medication pattern among rural population and various factors influencing it like occupation, habits, literacy rate, extent of awareness, source for drug information etc.

    Method

    A patient counseling and health screening campaign was held in a rural village called Utukur by P.Rami Reddy Memorial College of pharmacy located at kadapa town in Andhra Pradesh, India. A total number of 124 patients were assessed to identify the self-medication pattern and after the collection of data, the patients were counseled regarding the rational use of self-medication.

    Results

    Out of 124 rural patients (68 male and 56 female), majority of them (40) who take self-medication are from age group of 20-39 years. High illiteracy rate (72%), being farmers and daily wage workers (79%), high consultation fee (26%), obtaining quick relief (15%), lack of awareness about drug-drug, drug-alcohol, drug-smoking interactions (96%), easy availability from nearby pharmacy stores (88%), suffering from one or another chronic illness (58%) etc were found to be important factors influencing self-medication habit among them. Other parameters like symptoms for which they take self-medication, since how many years they are on self-medication, did they experienced any adverse consequences, their personal habits were also assessed.

    Conclusion

    There is an immediate necessity to provide awareness about the use of medicines in more number of villages. The staff and students of pharmacy colleges can have a greater impact upon self-medicating behavior of illiterates in rural areas by conducting awareness and patient counseling campaigns. As pharmacy stores are major source to purchase OTC medications, community pharmacist has got a major role to play in assisting and providing information to the patients about rational use of medicines