Articles

  1. An overview of Depression and its Pharmacotherapy Download Article

    Marium Khan, Nasar Aqeel, Atta Abbas
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (01-06)
    • No of Downloads: 1319

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    Depression is a very common mental health disorder, increasing with the socioeconomic and medical condition. Patients experience different feelings, depending upon the severity, frequency, and duration of symptoms. If left untreated and/or undiagnosed; can lead to complications such as suicidal thoughts etc. Patients can have an unhealthy life; caregiver or health care provider should focus on depressed individual to improve the quality of life. It can affect the normal daily routine, which can interfere in their daily work.  Antidepressants often used for the treatment of depression from mild to moderate depression until and unless there would be the need of electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapy along with antidepressants agents can increase the success rate of treatment and is also reported to be more effective than treating with medication alone. A pharmacist can play a pivotal role in this regard. 

  2. Study of Alteration in Serum Lipids by Enalapril and Ramipril in Albino Rabbits Download Article

    Shruti chandra, Singh S.P, Jain I.P, Singh S, Kushwaha V.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (07-13)
    • No of Downloads: 1250

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    Hypertension with dislipidemia is becoming a common morbidity, since ACE inhibitors are the first line of antihypertensive drugs so present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the possible effects of ACE inhibitor on lipid profile in albino rabbits. Rabbits were divided into 2 groups with 6 in each group. Rabbits of Group I were given Enalapril in dose of 0.50 mg/kg and  of group II were given Ramipril in dose of 0.25 mg/kg for a period of 6 weeks. Lipid profile estimation (Serum Total cholesterol, serum HDL, serum LDL, serum Triglycerides and serum VLDL) was done at day 0, 7, 21 and 45 respectively. After analysis Rabbits of group-I (Enalapril) showed 7% decrease in serum cholesterol level at 45th day (P<.05). Serum HDL level increased by 10% and 20% at day 21 & 45 respectively (P<.05). Serum Triglyceride level increases by 8% at day 45 (P<.05). Serum LDL level decreases by 7.8% and 16% at day 21 and 45 respectively.(P<.05 ). There was no significant change in Serum VLDL level. Rabbits of group- II (Ramipril) showed increase in HDL level by 7 % & 12 % at day 21 and 45.(P<.05). Total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels were not significantaly altered while serum LDL level decreases by 6.8 % at day 45. (P<.05). From our study it was concluded that enalapril had a favourable effect on serum lipid profile by decreasing total cholesterol, increasing serum HDL level. It may increase triglycerides, decrease LDL. Ramipril increase serum HDL and decreases LDL, there is no significant change in cholesterol, TG and  VLDL levels.

  3. Study of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of different fractions from Kydia calycina Roxb Download Article

    Babu Rao Bhukya, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (14-27)
    • No of Downloads: 1491

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    The present study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of various fractions of toluene, ethyl acetate, butan-2-one and n-butyl alcohol of Kydia calycina Roxb (Malvaceae). The fractions of the plant material were evaluated for the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing test, Eddy’s Hot plate test in mice and formalin-induced test and anti-inflammatory activity was screened by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation in rat models. The test fractions were showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in dose dependent manner and ethyl-acetate fraction was found to be most potent among the test fractions. At 150mg/Kg b.w.p.o dose Ethyl-acetate fraction significantly inhibited 69.02% writhing response and 64.28%, 78.21% Formalin induced analgesic in mice. The fraction with same dose showed significant 70.87% inhibition of Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and 42.72, 39.16% anti-proliferative effect of cotton pellet in rats and also different fractions of Kydia calycina Roxb showed prompt analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to dual inhibition properties on COX-2 and 5-LOX.

  4. Screening of Mentha cordifolia Opiz (Yerba Buena) buffer crude extract for aspartyl protease pepsin inhibitory activity Download Article

    Alfredo A. Hinay Jr, Lilen Dorothy C.Sarol
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (28-39)
    • No of Downloads: 1573

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    To date, several hundred bioactive compounds have been isolated from plant sources. Among them, protease inhibitors have drawn the attention recently owing to their pivotal role in pharmaceutical industry. With the anticipation that commonly and widely available plant could provide pharmacologically important protease inhibitor, an attempt will be made to screen Mentha cordifolia Opiz (Yerba buena) for aspartyl protease pepsin inhibitor to select a potential candidate for possible HIV-1 protease inhibitor. This research is an experimental type of study. It specifies the inhibitory activity of Mentha cordifolia Opiz (Yerba buena) against aspartyl protease pepsin. Plant extracts preparation, pepsin kinetic assay, pepsin inhibitory activity assay, qualitative phytochemical screening and Total Flavonoid Content were employed in the methodology. The percent inhibition of various concentration of Pepstatin A 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 1,000ug/ml obtained 63.43%, 72.26%, 78.62%, 82.86% and 96.47% respectively. All negative control concentrations were above 60% inhibitory activity. Mentha cordifoliaOpiz lyophilized buffer crude extract concentrations 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 1,000ug/mL obtained 57.95%, 62.46%, 69.32%, 74.37% and 94.96% respectively with an IC60 value of 17.30ug/mL. The study aims to determine the inhibitory activity of Mentha cordifolia Opiz (Yerba buena) on aspartyl protease pepsin. Relating to the objectives of the study and based on the results of the experimentations, the proponent now concludes: Mentha codifoliaOpiz (Yerba buena) have Concentration 60% (IC60) value of 17.30ug/mL against pepsin and the effect of lyophilized buffer crude extract of Mentha codifolia Opiz (Yerba buena) shows increasing response as the concentration of the plant lyophilized buffer extract increases.

  5. Epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus DM among different ethnic segments of population in Pakistan: A nationwide ethnographapical study Download Article

    Mehwish Rizvi, Sidra Tanwir, Atta Abbas, Arif Sabah, Zeb-un-Nisa, Imran Mushtaq, Muhammad Ahmed, Kalb- e- Ali Zaidi, Muhammad Nabeel, Sumaira Shakeel Siddiqui, Faiza Hussain and Anam Qureshi.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (40-45)
    • No of Downloads: 1436

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    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been estimated that the number of people with diabetes mellitus will greatly increase in the upcoming years. This prevalence has been projected to be greatest in the region of South Asia although several developing countries have reported a rise in the patients suffering from this disease as well. A cross sectional survey was conducted in health care settings of various cities of Pakistan for 8 months i.e. March 2013 to October 2013. It targeted patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus with probability sampling technique. The survey employed descriptive statistics, cross tabulation, chi square test and epidemiological calculations of relative risks RR and prevalence rate PR. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adult population above 25 years was found to be 0.74 with RR of 1.4938. Type 2 DM was observed at a PR of 0.72 with RR of 1.4444. The Sindhi race of Urdu speaking origin was seen to be suffering from the disease for most part (28%), followed by Punjabi race (27%) and Sindhi race of Sindhi speakers (20%). The gender of patient and phenotype of DM were associated. (P value  <0.05). Diabetes Mellitus is emerging as a serious threat in Pakistan. There is an urgent need of establishing preventive and management programs to counter this rising disease.

  6. Postoperative wound infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital in salem, India. Download Article

    J.Lalithambigai, A.Kavitha, R.Indra Priyadharsini, K.R.Rajesh.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (46-52)
    • No of Downloads: 1470

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    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is defined as an infection that occurs at an incision site within 30 days after surgery. Postoperative wound infections have been an important cause of morbidity and cost burden for the patients.

    Aim & Objectives: To isolate and identify the bacteria causing postoperative wound infections and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.

    Materials & Methods: One hundred and ten pus samples and wound swabs were collected from clinically suspected post-operative wound infection in Vinayaka Mission’s Kirupanada Variyar Medical College and Hospital, Salem from November 2011 to October 2012. The samples were processed as per standard guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as per CLSI guidelines.

    Results: Out of 110 pus samples and wound swabs, 41 samples (37.27%) were culture positive, out of which 5 samples showed more than 1 isolate. Sixty nine samples (62.72%) were culture negative. The common organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus 18(39.13%), Escherichia coli 10(21.73%), Klebsiella pneumoniae8(17.39%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7(15.21%). Most of the Staphylococcus aureus exhibited resistance to cefoxitin, cefazolin and gram negative bacilli showed resistance commonly to first and second generation cephalosporins.

    Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen from post- operative wound infections. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various isolates help to assist the clinician in appropriate selection of empirical antibiotics especially against hospital acquired infections. 

  7. The Knowledge and Practices of Physicians Regarding Pharmacotherapy of Obesity: The Current Scenario in Pakistan Download Article

    Sadaf Shahid, Atta Abbas, Arif Sabah, Sidra Tanwir, Farrukh Rafiq Ahmed, Shazia Adnan and Syed Imran Ali.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (53-59)
    • No of Downloads: 1501

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    Obesity in Pakistan has been largely underestimated in terms of prevalence. It is becoming an increasingly important public health issue as it relates to a number of non-communicable and chronic diseases. It is suggested that safe and effective pharmacotherapy along with the usual interventions by physicians can benefit in reducing overweight or obese status in patients. The discrepancies and consistencies of practices among physicians for managing obesity using pharmacotherapy in different settings and situations have been assessed, along with comparisons between problems of medical education of Pakistan that can affect decisions to use pharmacotherapy for management of obesity. It has been suggested that the prospect for upgraded information or knowledge regarding pharmacotherapy to manage obesity depends on hands on training, learning, and improving of medical education for physicians all over Pakistan along with pharmacist physician collaboration which can help decrease the burden of this disease and can reduce the considerable morbidity and mortality as remedy of such a crisis.

  8. Cervical lymph Node Enlargement Download Article

    N.Junior Sundresh, S.Narendran
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (60-67)
    • No of Downloads: 1521

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    Cervical lymph nodes are enlarged in almost all neck and head pathologies. Tuberculosis was the major cause for cervical lymphadenopathy. Pathological examination was also mandatory. Lymph node enlargement is seen in almost all disease and may be due localized pathology or a part of generalized disease. The cervical lymph nodes is more common and may be due to a head and neck disease or a manifestation from a distant organ because of this, clinical investigations like biopsy and details about the lymphatic drainage of the area are the main perquisites for a correct diagnosis.

  9. GC-MS Analysis and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Nepeta coerulescens Download Article

    Navadha Joshi, G.C.Sah
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (68-71)
    • No of Downloads: 1459

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    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Nepeta coerulescens collected from the Zanskar sub district of Kashmir, was analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituent terpene hydrocarbon was found out to be caryophyllene oxide (25.146%). The antimicrobial activity of essential oil of N.coerulescens was tested against five bacteria and two fungi, by disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited mild antibacterial activity and good antifungal activity.  

  10. Antistress activity of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits in stress induced biochemical and physiological perturbations Download Article

    N.Neelima, M. Sudhakar, B.V.S. Lakshmi.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (72-79)
    • No of Downloads: 1610

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    Emblica officinalis is a plant with diverse ethnical medicinal uses. The plant has been explored for diverse pharmacological actions, here it is planned to screen fruit extract for Adaptogenic activity. Ethanolic extract of fruits of Emblica officinalis was investigated on acute anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. Further wistar rats were subjected to chronic cold restraint stress to gauge the antistress potential of the extract.  Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and BUN.  There is also alteration in blood cell counts. Pretreatment with extract significantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in anoxia tolerance time in anoxia stress model. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress stress model. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis has significant Adaptogenic activity against variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations.

  11. A prospective study of the pattern of drug use in primary dysmenorrhea in a tertiary care hospital Download Article

    Ramya Sugumar, Vasundara Krishniah, Suvarna, H.P.Pundarikaksha, Prathap.B, Gladius Jennifer H.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (80-84)
    • No of Downloads: 1582

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    Aim

    To study the pattern of drug use in primary dysmenorrhea in a tertiary care hospital.

    Materials and Methods

    This prospective study of nine months duration was carried in Obstetrics and Gynecology OPD, in a tertiary care teaching hospital among 100 patients with PD. The analysis was done for the pattern of drug use, prescribing frequency of individual drug, to evaluate association between severity of dysmenorrhea and prescription pattern and adequacy of prescription details.

    Results

    The mean age of the patients was 22.32 ± 4.5 years. Majority (61%) of patients experienced severe dysmenorrhea. Mefenamic acid with dicyclomine combination was most frequently (72%) prescribed, followed by mefenamic acid alone (16%) and diclofenac (12%) and none were prescribed hormonal preparations. Although majority (43%) of the patients with severe dysmenorrhea were prescribed mefenamic acid with dicyclomine combination, the severity of dysmenorrhea did not influence the prescription pattern and choice of drug (p>.05). Instructions regarding dose, frequency and duration of drug administration were present in the prescriptions.

    Conclusion

    In our present study, NSAIDs and their combination with antispasmodics were prescribed most frequently. Majority of the drugs were prescribed by their brand names. Instructions regarding the prophylactic benefit of NSAIDs were not present in the prescriptions.

    Keywords:  Drug use study, NSAIDS, Primary dysmenorrhea, Tertiary care hospital.