Articles

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity and determination of essential metal and ash value contents of Trichodesma zeylanicum Download Article

    Sheila M.Maregesi, Nyamwisenda T.Nyamwisenda, Denis Mwangomo, Abdul Kidukuli
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (417-424)
    • No of Downloads: 1440

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    Infectious diseases are responsible for morbidity and mortality of millions each year especially in developing countries. Microbial drug resistance is a serious problem for current effective antimicrobial agents necessitating the search for new antimicrobial agents from natural sources including plants. Trichodesma zeylanicum plants is used for medicinal and nutrition purposes. The objective of this study was to confirm the antimicrobial activity of T.zeylanicum leaves against selected pathogenic microbes, determine essential metal and ash content and detect the presence of nitrate and calcium oxalate. The crude aqueous methanolic extract was prepared from the dry powdered leaves of T.zeylanicum by maceration at room temperature.  Eight bacterial and five fungi were used in the antimicrobial testing employing broth micro dilution method. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for metal analysis. The crude extract of T.zeylanicum leaves exhibited activity against S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, S typhi and the dermatophyte T.mentagrophyte with MIC value of 1.25 mg/ml. The content of four essential minerals obtained are; iron (58.53 mg/kg), manganese (47.51 mg/kg), magnesium (3.43 mg/kg), copper (3.28 mg/kg) and ash value of 23.46%. Microscopic and qualitative chemical analysis studies revealed the presence abundant calcium oxalate crystal and nitrate respectively. Both antifungal and antibacterial activity support the traditional use of T.zeylanicum leaves against scalp fungal infection which is normally accompanied with secondary infection due to bacteria. Presence of essential elements justifies their nutritional potential but safety issues need to be addressed. This is the first study on the plant T.zeylanicum with regard to antifungal activity and metal analysis.  Detail study is recommended to isolate bioactive principles and establishment of the complete nutritional and mineral profiles and safety.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Avicennia officinalis in methanolic extract Download Article

    Balasubramanian J, Rajesh kumar R, Purushothaman K
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (425-430)
    • No of Downloads: 1623

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    The Aim of this study is to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of Avicennia officinalis. The anti-inflammatory activity was estimated by carrageenan-induced acute, formalin-induced sub-acute paw edema, Freud’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis (chronic) models in rats. The methanolic extract of Avicennia officinaliswas given in the doses of 200 and 400mgkg -1. The plant extract at the dose of 400 mg kg -1showed significant anti-inflammatory activity peaked at 3 h where, it caused inhibition for the increase in carrageenan-induced acute (30.80%), increase in formalin-induced subacute (34.43%) paw edema and increase in Freud’s adjuvant induced arthritis (53.40) models in rats.

  3. A Pilot Study on the Drug-Drug interactions among the Schizophrenia Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Download Article

    Amareswara Reddy G, Samson Deepak A, Siva Kumar Reddy K, Samjeeva Kumar E
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (431-436)
    • No of Downloads: 1291

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    The present study is aimed to identify the possible drug-drug interactions in the prescriptions of schizophrenia patients and the clinical implications of those drug-drug interactions with them. The study was done in a tertiary care teaching hospital which has a fully fledged psychiatry department. An attempt was made to study drug-drug interactions (DDI’s) in the prescriptions of schizophrenic patients. For a period of one month 35 prescriptions of schizophrenic patients were prospectively evaluated for DDI’s by the simple random sampling method. The information about medication was recorded in a specially designed data entry form and it was assessed for possible and severe DDI’s by using primary, secondary and tertiary drug information sources. In the present study, 35 prescriptions were assessed and 19 prescriptions out of them were found to have DDI’s. Out of 19 DDI’s, 12 interactions occurred in male patients and 7 occurred among females. More number of drug interactions (7) was found in the 19-29 years age group. Based on severity, these interactions were classified as major (16%), moderate (58%) and minor (26%). Out of total interactions, 53% occurred with rapid onset, 37% with delayed onset and onset of 10% interactions were unspecified.  The schizophrenic patients have to take long term anti-psychotic medication therapy. Hence, prior assessment is mandatory for the prescriptions with multiple drug therapy. This can minimize a lot of major and moderate drug-drug interactions, especially among the patients with risk factors like cardiovascular and CNS disorders. Clinicians and pharmacists should use their best judgments while prescribing or assessing drug therapy. The study opens door for larger studies to emphasize the role of pharmacist in identifying and preventing DDI’s and provide safe advice on interaction management which can greatly add to patient safety and well being.

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant Studies of Whole Plant Ethanolic Extract of Blepharisrepens (Vahl) roth. Download Article

    Rajan.M, N. Senthilkumar, G.Jeyabalan.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (437-444)
    • No of Downloads: 1403

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    Antioxidant potential of whole plant ethanolic extract of Blepharisrepens (vahl) Roth was studied using different in vitro models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Blepharisrepens (vahl) roth at 500 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (89.32% and 89.12%) in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical. The ethanol extract showed better scavenging activity (69.78%) of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical followed by the scavenging of nitric oxide radical (73.25%) compared to aqueous extract. In contrast, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals were effectively scavenged by aqueous extract. Total antioxidant capacity of ethanol and aqueous extracts at 500 μg/ml concentration was found to be 56.21 and 62.78 mg ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. However, both the extracts showed only moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. They were also found to contain considerable total flavonoids and phenols suggesting their role as an effective free radical scavenger. These findings suggest that flavonoids in the whole plant Blepharisrepens (vahl) roth provide substantial antioxidant activity.

  5. New Anti-aflatoxin marine and Terrestrial extracts with assessment of their Antioxidants, Antimicrobial, Glycemic and Cholinergic properties bioscreening of new Anti-aflatoxin natural extracts Download Article

    Nadia Fouad, Doaa A.Ghareeb, El-Sayed E. Hafez, Mohameed A. El-Saadani, Mohamed M. El –Sayed.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (445-458)
    • No of Downloads: 2370

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    Aflatoxins are a group of closely related mycotoxins that are widely distributed in nature in different agricultural communities.  These toxins can produce a variety of diseases related to liver and brain damage. In this study, the phytochemical constituents of different plants ethanolic extracts (Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamuom zeilanicum, Menthe Pulegium, Adiantum capillus and Berberis vulgaris) and algae extracts (Ulva lactuca, Jania ruben and Petrocladiella capillacea) were examined as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant beside cholinergic and glycemic behaviours. The extracts antifungal activity was examined both on the Aspergillus flavus growth and on aflatoxins production. Results showed that both tested C. zeilanicum concentrations gave undetectable Aflatoxins B1 and B2 levelswhile B. vulgaris (1%) decreased B1 concentrations than control. Furthermore, it was found that B. vulgaris act as potent anti-AChE while the other tested terrestrial and marine extracts acted as activatorsAdditionally, B. vulgaris and marine algae extracts showed inhibitory effects toward α-glucosidase activity. As the growth of A.flavus affected by our tested extracts, differential display was performed on fungus genome to study up-down regulation. Results showed alteration in A. flavus gene expression at different concentrations of C. Zeilanicum and B. vulgaris (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) that confirmed the alterations that took place in aflatoxins production. In conclusion, this study showed the positive effect of our extracts as anti-aflatoxin so they could be used as preservative during food storage and as aflatoxicosis therapeutic extracts.

  6. Analysis of Phytochemical Principles from Different Plant Sources Download Article

    Vasundhara G, Parvathy R Chandran.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (459-463)
    • No of Downloads: 1370

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    Free radicals are formed in our body due to the stress caused by pollutants and other health hazards.  They enhance rate of aging and form the basic factor for various diseases such as heart disease, cancer etc. Certain agents called as antioxidants are known to fight against free radicals and positively support defense mechanisms of our body.  Antioxidants include certain phytochemicals obtained from plants.  The objective of the present study is quantification and comparison of antioxidant principles in  Asparagus racemosus and its rasayan \'Satavarigulam\'  and those in Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Garcinia gummi-gutta.  In this work we have attempted to analyze ascorbic acid content, flavones and glutathione in Asparagus racemosus and its rasayan \' Satavarigulam\'  and those in Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Garcinia gummi-gutta which are commonly used food condiments in Kerala. Garcinia is found to contain high levels of flavones compared to other sample materials used. Ascorbic acid and glutathione contents are also comparable to rasayan of Satavrigulam used for ailments.  The study indicates that condiments which are used traditionally in food items have medicinal properties and possess high nutritional value

  7. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities on Catunaregum spinosa. Download Article

    A.Chitra, N.Senthilkumar, M.Asraf ali
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (464-470)
    • No of Downloads: 1388

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    The methanol extract of Catunaregum spinosa (MECS) were evaluated for antitumor activity and antioxidant activity against Dalton’s ascites lymphoma (DAL) bearing Swiss albino mice.  The extract was administered at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24h of tumor inoculation.  After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed.  The present study deals with the effect of MECS on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of DAL-bearing hosts, hematological profile, biochemical and antioxidant profile.  MECS caused significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of DAL-tumor bearing mice.  Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice.  The lipid peroxidation was increased in tumor bearing animals, after treatment with MECS antioxidant levels increased significantly.  The results indicate that MECS exhibited significant antitumor activity in DAL-bearing mice.

  8. Phytochemical screening and Polyphenol estimation by HPLC of Terminalia arjuna Download Article

    Ramakrishna U.V, Dinesh kumar B,Sukesh Narayan Sinha, Ratna Priya
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (471-482)
    • No of Downloads: 1632

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    Medicinal Plants, as a source of remedies, are widely used as alternative therapeutic tool for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. Our main objective was to evaluate the components in Terminalia arjun samples and to evaluate the amount of polyphenols in the Terminalia arjuna dosage form using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

  9. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant activity of Euphorbia cyanthophora Download Article

    M.Chitra, N.Senthilkumar, M.Asraf ali
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (483-490)
    • No of Downloads: 1261

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    The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of the methonalic extract of Euphorbia cyanthophora (MEEC) in Wistar albino rats.  Protective action of MEEC was evaluated using animal model of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (2 g/kg, bw, p.o,).  Liver maker enzymes were assayed in serum and antioxidant status was assessed in liver tissue.  Histopathology was also studied.  Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferace (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were increased and the levels of total protein were decreased in acetaminophen treated rats. MEEC at (400 mg/kg, bw, p.o,) does decreased the elevated levels of all these biochemical parameters and restored the normalcy of total protein significantly.  Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was increased significant in liver tissue in the acetaminophen treated rats while the activities of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were decreased.  MEEC at the doses of (400 mg/kg, b w, p. o,) decreased the elevated levels of lipid peroxide and restored the normalcy of GPX, GSH, CAT and SOD.  Histopathology also shows similar result.  Silymarin is used in standard for this study.  From this study it can be concluded that the MEEC showed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant action.

  10. Looking Swabhawaparambada through Modern Point of view Download Article

    Dr.Amit Swarnakar
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (491-493)
    • No of Downloads: 1387

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    In Ayurveda a special emphasis has been given to the concept of Swabhawaparambada (Natural Destruction). Swabhawaparambada has been described in 16th chapter of Charka Sutrasthana that is “Chikitsaprabhritiya adhyaya”. Except Charaka Samhita the detail description of Swabhawaparambada has been found not up to the mark. The meaning of Swabhawaparambada is “natural destruction”. The meaning of uparam is destruction therefore Swabhawaparam means natural destruction. In the Jalpakalpataru tika of Charka Samhita, acharya Gangadhara has mentioned that there is natural destruction of dharma and rupa and there is no cause behind their destruction. Chakrapani has clarified regarding the matter and said that “destruction without any cause is known Swabhawaparambada”.