Articles

  1. Study on Rational Use of Anti-Diabetic Drugs in Patients with Diabetes and Other Co-Morbidities Download Article

    Sriram.S, Senthilvel.N, Merin.P, Vidhya.D
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (344-352)
    • No of Downloads: 1295

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    India presently has the largest number of diabetic patients in world and has been infamously dubbed as the ‘Diabetic capital of the world’. The study was undertaken to know the prevalence of Diabetic population and to evaluate the prescriptions for rational use of Antidiabetic medications and the management of existing co-morbidities. A prospective-observational study was carried out in General Medicine Department of a private corporate hospital, for a period of eight months. Evaluation of prescriptions was done for rational use of antidiabetic drugs in diabetic patients with other co-morbidities. Patient Information Leaflet, Diabetic food Chart & Diabetic Diary were prepared and given to patients. Therapeutic guidelines was prepared and given to the relevant department. A total 93 diabetic patients were enrolled in the study. In 48% of the diabetic population Hypertension was the major co-morbidity. The major microvascular complications observed include diabetic nephropathy in 12 (12.93%) patients. The major category of antidiabetic drugs prescribed were insulin (64.4%), sulphonyl urea (40.0%) and biguanides (28.9%), α-glucosidase inhibitor prescribed was acarbose (17.8%).Thirty diabetic patients (32.26%) had two co-morbidities followed by 21 patients (22.58%) with one co-morbidity and 16 (17.2%) patients had three co-morbid condition. In patients with diabetes all drugs should be used with both potential risks and benefits in mind. Conversely, the drugs that  lower blood sugars by inducing weight loss and lessening insulin resistance, thereby improving glycemic control and the patient’s quality of life need to be prescribed. Pharmacists play a major role in helping the patient maintain control of their disease.

  2. Herbal remedies for Alcohol dependency Download Article

    S.Neelufar Shama, K.Manikanta, N.Naga Chaitanya, U.S.D.N.Vaishnavi, S.Nowshad.
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (353-360)
    • No of Downloads: 1297

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    Alcohol dependency is a major health and socioeconomic dispute throughout the world. Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of alcohol dependency in China for years, but have only recently attracted the attention of western scientists. Recently, extracts of   St. John’s wort which have been traditionally used to treat mild to moderate depression, have drawn interest as potential antidipsotropic agents. Also experimental data shows that Pueraria lobataTabernanthe ibogaPanax ginsengSalvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum have also been proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Recent experimental evidence and critical re-examination of empirical data from traditional medicines suggest that novel pharmacological approaches for treatment of alcoholism and alcohol abuse may stem from natural substances. These data suggest that medicinal plants may constitute novel and effective pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. The present review summarizes the findings of the effects of these promising plants in alcohol addiction.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED SPECIES Download Article

    S.Sundar., V.Poojapriya, V.Navyakrishna, P.Sindhura, T. S. M. Sirisha.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (361-366)
    • No of Downloads: 1273

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    In the present study, a total of twelve extracts of four spices namely cumin, mustard, fenugreek and asafoetida extracted with two solvents such as ethyl alcohol and ethyl acetate were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. It was measured by agar disc diffusion method.All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the test bacterial isolates. According to the zone of inhibition observed in the entire agar plates, the combination of alcoholic extracts of asafoetida-mustard and asafoetida-fenugreek produced very good zone of inhibition such as 29.5 mm and 23.5 mm respectively against staphylococcus aureus. Then the combination of asafoetida-cumin and mustard-fenugreek produced the zone of inhibition 23.5 mm and 24 mm respectively against Bacillus subtilis. The effect of asafoetida-fenugreek combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced 22 mm of zone of inhibition. The combination of ethyl acetate extract of cumin-mustard and cumin-fenugreek produced the zone of inhibition 20.5 mm & 19 mm respectively against E.coli. Again the same mixture of extracts produced very good effect against Staphylococcus aureus also and their zones of inhibition are 24.5 mm and19.5 mm. According to results, these extracts may be an alternative to chemical preservatives and used as natural antimicrobial preservatives to reclaim the shelf-life of food. Further research may be carried out for the identification of bioactive molecule present in the two extracts and in vivo efficacy against food spoilage microorganisms

  4. Biological activities of Barleria cristata Download Article

    Tasnuva Sharmin, Shahanaz Ahmed, Farhana Islam
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (367-371)
    • No of Downloads: 2614

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     The methanol extract of leaves of Barleria cristata L. as well as its hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were subjected to screening for antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteau reagents using butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The extractives of B. cristata exhibited weak free radical scavenging activity. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction exhibited an IC50 value of 300.82±0.33 μg/ml which demonstrated total phenolic content of 89.22±0.12 mg of GAE / gm of extractives. The general toxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay where the hexane (LC50 =1.52±0.34 μg/ml) soluble fraction revealed the presence of considerable bioactive principles. Mild thrombolytic activity was discerned by B. cristata extractives. During assay for thrombolytic activity, the aqueous soluble fraction exhibited 45.0±0.22 % of clot lysis as compared to 65.66% and 3.791% clot lysis by standard streptokinase and water, used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The crude methanol extract and chloroform soluble fraction inhibited 55.36±0.12% & 35.7±0.05% and 48.95±0.02% & 21.77±0.87% haemolysis of RBCs induced by hypotonic solution and heat, respectively. Here, acetyl salicylic acid (0.1 mg/ml) was used as reference showing 71.9% and 42.12% inhibition of haemolysis of RBCs in hypotonic solution and heat induced conditions, respectively. The chloroform soluble materials demonstrated activity against microbial growth with zone of inhibition ranging from 7.0 to 26.0 mm. KEYWORDS: Barleria cristata L., total phenolic content, DPPH, free radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, thrombolytic activity, membrane stabilizing activity, zone of inhibition.

  5. Bioevaluation of Sirupellai samoolam herbal formulation for Antiurolithiatic activity Download Article

    A.Tamil Selvan, R.P.Ashvini, B.Jayalaxmi, R.Suthakaran, M.Visvanath
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (372-377)
    • No of Downloads: 2577

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    Ayurveda offers vast scope for the successful treatment of urolithiasis. Although most remedies were herbal and proved useful, a systematic scientific evaluation has been reported for only few remedies. Sirupeelai samoolam a herbal formulation was claimed to be useful in the treatment of urinary stones in Ayurvedic literature. Toxicity study confirms that the therapeutic dose of Sirupeelai samoolam was 360mg/kg. The antilithiatic effect of Sirupeelai samoolam was determined on lactose diet + ethylene glycol induced and ammonium chloride + ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in male albino wistar rats. The results obtained after 4 weeks of treatment for the urine estimation of calcium, oxalate, magnesium and protein were significant (p<0.01) in reducing the calculus when compared with the standard drug cystone (750mg/kg) treated animals. Urine calcium oxalate crystals were also reduced in test drug treated and standard treated groups. The histopathological examination of kidney shows normal pattern of the cells, tissues, less damage and no microcrystalline deposition. These observations and results conclude that Sirupeelai samoolam herbal formulation possesses significant antiurolithiatic action and can be used safely for treating urinary calculus.

  6. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity of fatty extract of Caprus hircus milk in rats Download Article

    D.N.Anusha , Shakti Prasanna Sahoo, S.Ramchandran, M.D.Dhanraju and P.K.Kota
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (378-383)
    • No of Downloads: 2507

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    Capra hircus(goat) is one of the domesticated animals used for milk, meat and fibre. Milk is one of the essential products in the human diet, rich in nutritive components. Goat\'s milk has vitamins, minerals, trace elements, electrolytes, enzymes, proteins, and fatty acids that are easily assimilated by the body. The fatty acids present in Caprus hircus milk was revealed to have more beneficial properties to health and used as a traditional medicine for.The present study is aimed to investigate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effect of isopropanol extract of milk of Caprus hircus. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated by measuring blood glucose level in rats treated with isopropanol extract of caprine milk and comparing to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced rats. The isopropanol extract of Caprus hircus produced significant changes in the streptazotocin induced diabetic rats by reducing the glucose levels considerably. isopropanol extract treated group(200 mg/kg b.w) showed the mean value of 157.6±3.656 and 117.6±3.839 respectively as compared with a mean value 317.2±4.244 of diabetic control group. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenam induced paw edema model in rats.There was significant reduction (p< 0.01) in paw diameter in the group that received high dose (200 mg/kg b.w) of isopropanol extract of Caprus hircus milk from Mean±SEM of 0.184±0.004 to 0.052±0.003 (71.73%) as compared with the disease control group. The present study concludes that caprine milk extract confirmed promising anti diabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats and significant anti-inflammatory properties against carrageenan induced paw edema.

  7. Screening models for Anti-Amnesic activity evaluation: A Review Download Article

    Shahjahan, Rai Arti, Talha Jawaid
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (384-389)
    • No of Downloads: 1257

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    Alzheimer\'s disease is the most common form of dementia. The disease gets worse as it develops - it is a progressive disease. There is no current cure for Alzheimer\'s, although there are ways of slowing down its advance and helping patients with some of the symptoms. Alzheimer\'s is also a terminal disease; it is incurable and causes death. Evidence suggests that compounds especially from natural sources are capable of providing protection against dementia. It is necessary to Screen out medicinal plants for their anti-amnesic potential. Therefore an attempt has been made to review different models for estimating anti amnesic properties of natural products from medicinal plants. 

  8. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of Acacia leucophloea bark Download Article

    R.Thirumurthy, J.Priya
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (390-395)
    • No of Downloads: 2271

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    The pharmacological and chemical constituents of plant from Acacia leucophloea which is widely used in folk medicine. The aim of present study is to investigate the analgesic and anti pyretic activity of Methanolic extract of Acacia leucophloea bark. The analgesic activity was found out by Eddys hot plate by using the standard drug Pentazocine. The anti pyretic activity was found out by yeast induced pyrexia method by standard drug paracetamol. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of  glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, saponins, fixed oils and fats, flavonoids and coumarins are present in extracts.

  9. Study Of Antipyretic Activity Of Scaevola taccada Roxb Leaf Extract. Download Article

    A.Chandran, G.Arunachalam
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (396-399)
    • No of Downloads: 2371

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    In the present investigation preliminary phytochemical screening leaves extract of Scaevola taccada revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, lipids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. The antipyretic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of Scaevola taccada was evaluated in albino rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts was showed significant activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The antipyretic effects of the extracts were comparable to that of standard drug (paracetamol 150 mg/kg).

  10. Compendious Study On JNC- 7 In a Tertiary Hospital. Download Article

    Muntha Pratibha, Abbanapuram Geetha, L.Mohan Krishna, M.Srinivasa Murthy
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (400-407)
    • No of Downloads: 1266

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    A prescription-based survey was considered one of the most effective methods to assess and evaluate the prescribing attitude of physicians and dispensing practice of pharmacists.  A compendious study on The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) in Apollo hospitals, Secunderabad, India was carried out on hypertension that help to improve prescribing practice of the physicians and ultimately, the clinical standards. A continuous supervision is therefore required through such kinds of systematic audit that provide feedback from the physician and help to promote rational use of drugs. A total of 60 prescriptions were received during the study period (3 months) from february 2013 to april 2013. The present study observed that hypertension was more prevalent in males than in females. Mono therapy is more used in males at rate of 68.33% and combination therapy was more used in females at the rate of 18.33%. An ideal combination must include anti-hypertensives drugs possessing complementary modes of action that provide a synergistic anti-hypertensive effect without any significant adverse effects, at low doses. Furthermore, the anti-hypertensive drug combination therapy should be able to minimise or counteract the reflex compensatory mechanisms that often limit the fall in blood pressure.

  11. Cytoprotective Activity of Citrus aurantifolia fruits Extract Against Aflatoxin-B1 induced Cytotoxicity Download Article

    Prakash Srinivasan Timiri Shanmugam, S Venkataraman, Saraswathi Ariamuthu
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (408-413)
    • No of Downloads: 2421

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    Citrus aurantifolia, is one of the herbal medicines in India that has been commonly used for treating variousdiseases, including liver disorders.  Based on its use in traditional oriental medicine, the current study was carried out to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of C. aurantifolia using Aflatoxin B(AFB1)-induced liver injury in a rat model.Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each.  Group I served as the control. Group II was treated with vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) a single intraperitoneally (i.p) on day 5. Group III animals received AFB1-alone (1mg/Kg body weight) intraperitoneally in DMSO as a single dose on day 5.  Group IV and V received MeCA and AqCA (500mg/Kg body weight, per oral) for 5 days and AFB1 (1mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in DMSO as a single dose on day 5.  At the end of the 8th day, the liver was collected and used to determine the hepatoprotective activity. Genomic DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoretic pattern in the rat livers. The ultra-structure of the liver cells was studied by electron microscopy. C. aurantifoliatreatment significantly protected nucleic acid levels.  We also found that the treatment significantly inhibited DNA fragmentation. Nucleus structures were well maintained.  These results demonstrate that C. aurantifolia has a cytoprotective effect against AFB1-induced liver injury.  In this study, we focused on the cytoprotective effects of C. aurantifolia against AFB1-induced cytotoxicity.

  12. Role Of Docetaxel Mems Device In The Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy Download Article

    M.Yogya sree harshini, G.Anusha, Nallani Venkata Ramarao, Ramarao nadendla, P.Sharmila nirojini, Shaik shafiya begum.
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (414-416)
    • No of Downloads: 1278

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    Diabetic retinopathy is a micro-vascular complication composed of a characteristic group of lesions which occurs due to changes in the retinal circulation. It is increasingly becoming a major cause of blindness throughout the world in the age group of 20–60 years. Diabetic retinopathy is classified into two stages; Non-proliferative and proliferative.  Due to the circulation problems, retinal hypoxia occurs leading to Angiogenesis. The new formed fragile blood vessels begin to grow in the retina, vitreous and may leak blood into the vitreous, clouding vision. If left untreated, proliferative diabetic retinopathy can cause severe vision loss and even blindness. The newly developed MEMS(Microelectromechanical system) device contains a microreservoir sealed by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane with a laser drilled aperture. By applying Magnetic field, the membrane deforms and releases the drug. Docetaxel inhibits Angiogenesis by inhibiting cell division and cell proliferation in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and avoids vision loss. Thus   Docetaxel improves quality of life of patients suffering with diabetic retinopathy besides treating the ovarian, prostate, liver, renal, gastric ,head and neck  cancers.