Articles

  1. In vivo analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn Leaves Download Article

    B.Deepak Kumar, k.Sainath, M.Neetha, Viswateja
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-4)
    • No of Downloads: 61

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    Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. (Family: Burseraceae) Leaves were extracted in petroleum ether (60°-80°C) to evaluate for centrally acting analgesic potential using tail immersion and peripheral pharmacological actions using acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts were found to have been significant (p<0.05) analgesic activity at the oral dose of 200 & 400 mg/kg b. wt., in the tested models. In tail immersion test Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts showed increased tail withdrawal time whereas in acetic acid induced writhing test Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts showed reduced number of writhes at two dose levels, which are significant (p<0.05) compared to control. The results obtained support the use of leaves of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts in painful conditions acting both centrally and peripherally.

  2. Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. (Family: Burseraceae) Leaves were extracted in petroleum ether (60°-80°C) to evaluate for centrally acting analgesic potential using tail immersion and peripheral pharmacological actions using acetic acid induced writhing te Download Article

    Monic Shah, Pradeep Kumar Reddy p, Yerram raju Behara, Chandra Mouli
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (5-9)
    • No of Downloads: 74

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    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the anti-diarrhoeal effects of ethanolic (90%) extract of leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) (EETA) was studied against castor oil-induced-diarrhoea model in rats. Antidiarrhoeal activity of 90% ethanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica (L.) was investigated in this study using castor oil-induced-diarrhoea, enteropooling and Small intestinal transit models in rats. The weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by enteropooling method. Standard drug diphenoxylate (5 ml/kg, p.o) was significant reduction in fecal output and frequency of droppings whereas EETA at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o significantly (P<0.001) reduced the castor-oil induced frequency and consistency of diarrhoea and enteropooling. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine.  EETA at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited (P<0.001) the castor oil induced charcoal meal transit. The EETA showed marked reduction in the number of diarrhoea stools and the reduction in the weight and volume of the intestinal contents, as well as a modest reduction in intestinal transit. The results obtained to establish the efficacy and substantiate the folklore claim as an anti- diarrheal agent. Further studies are needed to complete understand the mechanism of anti-diarrhoeal action of Toddalia asiatica (L.).

  3. In-Vitro antioxidant activity of the petroleum ether extract of Yucca Gloriosa L Download Article

    Rajendar Rao.V, B.N.V. Bhargavi, Soujanya.G
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (10-13)
    • No of Downloads: 80

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    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of whole plant of petroleum ether extract of Yucca gloriosa L. The plant extract was tested for DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging, and reducing power assays. The results show that the plant extracts of Yucca gloriosa L. possess antioxidant activity when compared with standard shows the same.

  4. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of toddalia asiatica (l.) In castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats Download Article

    Monic Shah, Pradeep Kumar Reddy P, Yerram raju Behara, Chandra Mouli
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (14-18)
    • No of Downloads: 74

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    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the anti-diarrhoeal effects of ethanolic (90%) extract of leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) (EETA) was studied against castor oil-induced-diarrhoea model in rats. Antidiarrhoeal activity of 90% ethanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica (L.) was investigated in this study using castor oil-induced-diarrhoea, enteropooling and Small intestinal transit models in rats. The weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by enteropooling method. Standard drug diphenoxylate (5 ml/kg, p.o) was significant reduction in fecal output and frequency of droppings whereas EETA at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o significantly (P<0.001) reduced the castor-oil induced frequency and consistency of diarrhoea and enteropooling. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine.  EETA at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited (P<0.001) the castor oil induced charcoal meal transit. The EETA showed marked reduction in the number of diarrhoea stools and the reduction in the weight and volume of the intestinal contents, as well as a modest reduction in intestinal transit. The results obtained to establish the efficacy and substantiate the folklore claim as an anti- diarrheal agent. Further studies are needed to complete understand the mechanism of anti-diarrhoeal action of Toddalia asiatica (L.).

  5. In vivo analgesic activity of petroleum ether extract of boswellia ovalifoliolata linn. Leaves Download Article

    B.Deepak Kumar, K.Sainath, M.Neetha, Viswateja
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (19-22)
    • No of Downloads: 72

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    Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. (Family: Burseraceae) Leaves were extracted in petroleum ether (60°-80°C) to evaluate for centrally acting analgesic potential using tail immersion and peripheral pharmacological actions using acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts were found to have been significant (p<0.05) analgesic activity at the oral dose of 200 & 400 mg/kg b. wt., in the tested models. In tail immersion test Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts showed increased tail withdrawal time whereas in acetic acid induced writhing test Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts showed reduced number of writhes at two dose levels, which are significant (p<0.05) compared to control. The results obtained support the use of leaves of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Linn. extracts in painful conditions acting both centrally and peripherally.

  6. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extracts of ficus carica. fruits Download Article

    Sruthi.B, Sunny.G, Hajra Naz, S.Sakthivel
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (23-26)
    • No of Downloads: 89

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    Ethanol extracts of Ficus carica L. fruits were tested for diuretic activity in rats. The parameters studied on individual rat were total urine volume, urine concentration of Na+, K- and Cl-. In the present study ethanol extracts of Ficus carica, L. (100 and 200mg/kg of body weight) showed an increase in urine volume, cation and anion excretion. Furosemide was used as the reference diuretic. Based on the above results, we can conclude that Ficus carica L. treatment produced a marked diuresis when rats were acutely treated. In our study, no lethality was observed at least for the dose (2000mg/kg body weight), and duration used. The best results of urine output observed with the ethanolic extract of Ficus carica L. fruits obtained through this evaluation. These findings support the traditional uses of Ficus carica L. as diuretic agents.

  7. Anti - ulcer activity of syzygium alternifolium against ethanol and nsaid induced ulcer in rats Download Article

    Zeba Baqtiyar, Anusha.J, Kamala.K, Sam Jeeva Kumar E
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (27-31)
    • No of Downloads: 59

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    Syzygium alternifolium  a member of the Myrtaceae family, is used in fruit is used for curing stomach ache, ulcers and management of rheumatic pains; seeds as anti-diabetic agents; leaves to treat dry cough and dysentery; and stem bark as antiseptic. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Ethanol Extract of Syzygium alternifolium   (ESA) extract in albino rats. No toxicity of extract up to 2000mg/kg body weight orally as per OECD guidelines No.423. ESA at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was administered to evaluate anti-ulcer activity by using Ethanol and indomethacin, induced gastric ulcer models in Albino rats. Ethanol Extract of Syzygium alternifolium dose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions, causing 68.04% protection at 500 mg/kg, and 54.74% protection at 250 mg/kg, ESA dose dependent inhibition in indomethacin induced gastric lesions, causing 65.14% protection at 500 mg/kg and 54.13% protection at 250 mg/kg, All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that Ethanol Extract of the fruit of Syzygium alternifolium could  decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defense in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an anti ulcerogenic agent.

  8. Lacto-D3; The sunshine vitamin provides vitamin d3 optimum strength Download Article

    Govind shukla, Sharathkumar, C.J Sampath kumar
    • Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (32-43)
    • No of Downloads: 50

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    Supplementation of cholecalciferol (vitaminD3) significantly reduces all-cause mortality emphasizes the medical, ethical, and legal implications of promptly diagnosing and adequately treating VitamnD3 deficiency. Not only are such deficiencies common, and probably the rule, VitamnD3 deficiency is implicated in most of the diseases of civilization.  Vitamin D3’s final metabolic product is a potent, pleiotropic, repair and maintenance, seco-steroid hormone that targets more than 200 human genes in a wide variety of tissues, meaning it has as many mechanisms of action as genes it targets. One of the most important genes VitamnD3 up-regulates is for cathelicidin, a naturally occurring broad-spectrum antibiotic. Natural VitamnD3 levels, those found in humans living in a sun-rich environment, are between 40-70 ng/mL, levels obtained by few modern humans. Assessing serum 25-hydroxy-VitamnD3 (25(OH)D) is  the only way to make the diagnosis and to assure treatment  is adequate and safe. Three treatment modalities exist for VitaminD3 deficiency: sunlight, artificial ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and VitamnD3 supplementation. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy patients with 2,000-7,000 IU VitamnD3 per day should be sufficient to maintain year-round 25(OH)D levels between 40-70 ng/mL. In those with serious illnesses associated with VitamnD3 deficiency, such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, autism, and a host of other illnesses, doses should be sufficient to maintain year-round 25(OH)D levels between 55-70 ng/ mL. Vitamin D 3-deficient patients with serious illness should not only be supplemented more aggressively than the well, they should have more frequent monitoring of serum 25(OH) D and serum calcium. Vitamin D3 should always be adjuvant treatment in patients with serious illnesses and never replace standard treatment. Theoretically, pharmacological doses  of VitamnD3 (2,000 IU/kg/day for three days) may produce  enough of the naturally occurring antibiotic cathelicidin to cure  common viral respiratory infections, such as influenza and  the common cold, but such a theory awaits further science. The present paper Reviews the role of VitamnD3 in preventing different human disorders.

  9. Find out the prevalance of various non-variceal diseases producing upper GI bleeding Download Article

    N.Junior Sundresh, S.Narendran, M.Ramanathan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (44-49)
    • No of Downloads: 44

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    Non variceal upper G.I bleeding is the bleeding from a source proximal to the ligament of teres. Advances in medical technology particulars the increased availability and application or diagnostic and the operatic endoscopy have been instrumented in evaluated and successful treatment of patients with major bleeding. This study aims to find out various non-variceal diseases producing upper G.I. bleeds and the various modalities of treatment.         

  10. Relaxant effects of adhatoda vasica on guinea pig Tracheal chains and its possible mechanisms Download Article

    Prasanta Kumar Mahapatra, Debasis Pradhan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (50-56)
    • No of Downloads: 62

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    Adhatoda vasica is a plant believed to have several therapeutic effects, including anti-asthmatic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts of leaves of this plant on tracheal chains of Guinea pigs were evaluated. The relaxant effects of 4 cumulative concentrations of macerated and soxhlet extracts (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 W/V) in comparison with saline as negative control and 4 cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mM) as positive controls were examined on precontracted tracheal chains of two groups of 6 Guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1, N=6) and 10 µM methacholine the non-incubated tissues (group 2, N = 6) and tissues incubated  with 1 µM propranolol (group  3, N = 4)[24]. Decrease in contractile tone of tracheal chains was considered as the relaxant effect. The isolated guinea-pig trachea pre-contracted with KCl, methacholine and tissues incubated with propranolol were used to study the relaxation of macerated and soxhlet extracts of leaves Adhatoda vasica. In the group, 1 experiments only the last two higher concentrations of  theophylline and soxhlet extract showed significant relaxant effect compared to that of saline (p<0.001 for both concentrations), which were significantly greater than those of macerated extracts (p<0.001 for all cases). The effects of two higher concentrations of theophylline in this group were significantly greater than those of macerated and soxhlet extracts (P < 0.01). And in group 2 and 3 experiments, both macerated and soxhlet extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001 for both extracts). There were no significant differences when comparing the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts with those of theophylline in the group 2 experiments. The relaxant effects of macerated, and soxhlet extracts in group 1 were significantly lower than those of groups 2 and 3. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Adhatoda vasica on tracheal chains of Guinea pigs, which were lower than theophylline at concentrations used.

  11. Whole sexual stimulant activity of commercially available shark fin soup as a chinese cuisine Download Article

    Vignesh Muruganandham, Parkavi Vignesh, Muthu Mohamed Jamal Moideen, Selvakumar Kanthaiah, Joysa Ruby Joseph Rajarathinam
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (57-62)
    • No of Downloads: 56

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    Researchers are finding that some foods, herbs and other supplements do stimulate production of hormones or other chemicals that affect our libidos. What happens in the body and brain when we are sexually excited? For both men and women, it all boils down to hormones - specifically testosterone. Our sex drive is controlled by our hormone levels, with testosterone being the key. The shark-fin soup is considered a status symbol in Asian countries, and is considered healthy and full of nutrients, with some even claiming they prevent cancer and other ailments. The main aim of this study was to find out the effect of shark-fin soup on the sexual behavior of male mice. It was also to evaluate the effectiveness of “Carcharhinus Amblyshynchos” (Shark) as sexual stimulant and to compare the effectiveness against any two marketed sexual stimulant drugs. Shark-fin soup was prepared by boiling the size reduced shark fin with purified water up to 100°C for 6 hr. To quantify mounting behaviour, 2 non-oestrous female mice were paired with 4 male mice treated with a single dose of drug orally. Each group of 4 male mice were placed separately and given positive control drug-I as Sildenafil Citrate (300 mg/kg p.o), positive control drug-II as Chinese traditional medicine, Panax ginseng (300 mg/kg p.o) and shark-fin soup (400 ml/kg p.o). Licking and mounting behavior was observed continuously for 3 hr in a suitable matting condition. Finally, the vaginal smear of each female mouse was examined under a microscope, and sperms were found. During mounting and licking assessment shark-fin soup showed  its action almost as effective as positive control drug-I and II. In matting assessment, the shark-fin soup has been confirmed that effectual as a sexual stimulant agent as there were traces of sperms in the female mice vaginal fluid. Based on the results found, the shark-fin soup possesses sexual stimulant activity.

  12. Antinociceptive activity of ipomoea eriocarpa whole plant extracts Download Article

    Pandith Shiva Prasad, Shubhrajit Mantry, Gurram Rajashekar Reddy, Jaffer Sadik MD
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (63-66)
    • No of Downloads: 51

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    The whole plant of Ipomoea eriocarpa is used for ulcer, fever and rheumatism. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic activity of the petroleum ether extract of Ipomoea eriocarpa  R.Br. (Convolvulaceae) whole plant (PEIE) was investigated in chemical models of nociception in mice.  PEIE at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg p.o produced an inhibition of 29.22%, 51.80% and 79.87% of the abdominal writhe induced by acetic acid in mice. In the formalin test, the administration of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg p.o had no effects in the first phase (0–5 min) but produced a dose-dependent analgesic effect on the second phase (15–40 min) with inhibitions of the licking time of 31.54%, 45.27% and 60.52% respectively. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the peripheral analgesic effect of Ipomoea eriocarpa  may be attributed to inhibition of prostaglandin release and other mediators involved. Further studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism of action of the analgesic activity of the Ipomoea eriocarpa. The result obtained show that the Ipomoea eriocarpa possesses significant analgesic activity, which confirms the traditional claims of the plant.

  13. Antipyretic activity of whole plant of lepidagathis cristata willd. In brewer’s yeast induced hyper pyrexia rats Download Article

    B.Deepak kumar, Rajendar Rao.V, Mikkilineni Sindhu Devi, Chandrashekar.B
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (67-70)
    • No of Downloads: 56

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    The objective of the present work was to study the antipyretic activity of whole plant of Lepidagathis cristata Willd, belongs to family Acantahaceae. The Petroleum ether extract was taken for the study and evaluated for antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wister strain albino rats. The Petroleum ether extracts at a dose of 100mg/kg & 200mg/kg were evaluated for antipyretic activity. The extract of Lepidagathis cristata plant showed a significant (P < 0.01) dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. The Petroleum ether extracts of Lepidagathis cristata plant have significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug.